Botswana consists of nine districts and is a representative democratic republic, whereby the President is both head of state and head of government in a multi-party system. The country’s latest democratic election was held in October 2014, with the Botswana Democratic Party recording their 11th straight victory. President Seretse Khama Ian Khama, the incumbent, was sworn in for his second five-year term running through until 2019, overseeing the country’s celebrations of 50 years of independence in 2016.
Botswana has experienced sustained economic growth, with 5% annual growth over the past decade. The economy has been export driven with revenues secured through the sales of mined commodities including diamonds. The mining sector contributing between 2005 and 2014 on average 24% of GDP. The dependence on global commodities for export makes the country vulnerable to changes in the international markets, with unfavorable global conditions leading to a contracting of the economy. This situation has been further hampered by challenges in the regular supply of water and electricity.
In response to challenging economic conditions, the Government has made concerted efforts to diversify the economy through focusing on sectors including tourism, agriculture and industry. Interventions that have been underpinned by the Government’s Economic Stimulus Program include investments in infrastructure, telecommunication and transportation. The efforts to shift the country’s economy away from an over dependence on mined commodities in conjunction with the stimulus packages has resulted in positive forecasts for medium-term economic growth.