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Governmental Framework

Government Institutions

Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources (MMEWR)

The Ministry formulates, directs and coordinates overall national policies on minerals, energy and water resources. The Energy Affairs Department (EAD) sits within the Ministry and defines, implements and coordinates the national energy policy. The overall policy goal for the sector is to provide affordable, environmentally friendly and sustainable energy services in order to promote social and economic development.


Ministry of Environment, Wildlife and Tourism (MEWT)

MEWT and specifically the Department of Meteorological Services engages on climate change issues with cross over into the energy sector which includes for example fuel wood resources.

Botswana Power Corporation

The Botswana Power Corporation (BPC) is the state owned electrical power generation, transmission and distribution Company. It was established in 1970 and is currently the only electricity supplier in the country.


Energy and Water Regulatory Agency (under development)

In 2016 the country’s Parliament passed the Botswana Energy Regulatory Authority Bill[i] that will establish a new energy and water regulatory agency with the mandate to regulate the energy and water sectors. The authority is yet to be incorporated, however initial design work has been undertaken.

Botswana Renewable Energy Agency (under discussion)

The country is engaged in ongoing discussions on institutional energy reforms. The establishment of a dedicated agency responsible for promoting the use and uptake of renewable energy in Botswana is foreseen.

Botswana Development Corporation Limited (BDC)

Established in 1970 the BDC is the country’s main agency for commercial and industrial development. The Government of Botswana owns 100 percent of the Corporation, which invests in commercially viable projects in all sectors – except large-scale mining.


Botswana Investment and Trade Centre (BITC)

The BITC is an organisation established by an act of Parliament, to become an integrated Investment and Trade Promotion Authority (ITPA). BITC is mandated with the promotion and attraction of investment, export promotion, and the supporting of national development, including management of the National Brand.


Botswana Unified Revenue Service (BURS)

The Botswana Unified Revenue Services is the key agency mandated to carry out tax assessment and collection functions on behalf of the Government.


The Botswana Bureau of Standards (BOBS)

BOBS is a Parastatal established in 1997 under the Standards Act (1995). It is the official body responsible for all issues related to standardization and quality assurance at the national level including issues related to environmental protection.


Strategies, Policies, Acts, and Regulations Governing Renewable Energy

Botswana’s Vision 2036

Botswana’s vision 2036, with an overall aim for the country to achieve a high-income status, succeeds the previous vision 2016 that was established in 1996. The vision consists of four pillars: Sustainable Economic Development, Human and Social Development, Sustainable Environment and Good Governance, Peace and Security.

National Development Plan (NDP) 11 (2017-2023)

The energy focus of Botswana’s NDP11 builds on the steps initiated under its predecessor to develop cost effective and environmentally sustainable sources of energy generation. A central component is the continuation of work with the World Bank to develop a comprehensive renewable energy strategy aimed at facilitating investments in the sector. Direct reference is made to the strategy adding further to an existing body of work that includes:

  • Country Wide Survey – Solar Water Heating Systems in Botswana;
  • Bankable Feasibility Study for a 200MW Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plant in Botswana;
  • A Feasibility Study for Production and Use of Biofuels in Botswana;
  • Botswana Biomass Energy Strategy;
  • Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff for Botswana.

The NDP identifies renewable energy as a contributing element to address the country’s energy security concerns as well as its climate change targets. The NDP highlights solar power as a promising off-grid solution and indicates that electricity subsidies will continue in low income urban, semi-urban, and rural areas.

Electricity Supply Act (1973, amended in 2007)

The amendment Electricity Supply (2007) Act allows for the participation of Independent Power Producers (IPPs), with generation and supply governed by licenses issued under the Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resource. Allowances are in place for governmental departments and generators operating at less than 25 kW of capacity.

National Energy Policy (2015, Draft)

The draft National Energy Policy was adopted by the Cabinet in 2015 and highlights the importance of developing renewable energy sources (e.g solar, biogas) for improved security of energy supply. The NEP further promotes energy efficiency measures throughout all sectors of the economy.

Botswana Energy Master Plan (1996, reviewed 2003)

The Botswana Energy Master Plan outlines various goals for rural electrification including the efficient use of renewable energy. Amongst others initiatives, it highlights government promotion of solar energy, off-grid solutions, and grid extension, in addition to the removal of investment barriers and the creation of appropriate institutional frameworks.

Biomass Energy Strategy (2009)

The development of the country’s Biomass Energy Strategy under the Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources was supported by the German Development Cooperation (GIZ). The document outlines biomass energy demand, woody and non-woody biomass supply, potential interventions, and a comprehensive strategy for the utilization of biomass energy resources.

Key figures

Available statistics:
Official languages
English, Setswana
Population (2019 est.)
Population growth (2017 est.), %
Median age (2018 est.), years
Urbanization rate (2015 - 2018), % p.a.
Urban population (2018), % of total
Rural population (2018), % of total
Population density (2018), per km2
HDI (2018), rank of 188
101 of 188
National Currency
Pula, BWP
Exchange rate (July 2019) USD
10.58 BWP = 1 USD
GDP (2018), USD million current
GDP growth (2018), %
GDP annual growth rate forecast (2020), %
GNI per capita (2018), current int’l USD
Inflation (2019), %
Inflation Rate Forecast (2020), %
Foreign Direct Investment, net inflows (2018), BOP current USD millions
Net official development assistance (2018), current USD millions
Budget deficit (2016), % of GDP
Ease of Doing Business (2018), rank of 190)
TI Corruption Index (2018), rank of 168
Installed Generation Capacity (MW, 2017)
Installed Fossil Fuel Capacity (MW, 2018), % of total installed capacity
Hydro Capacity (MW, 2018), % of total installed capacity
Other RE Capacity (2018), % of total installed capacity
Renewable electricity output as % of total electricity output excl. hydro (2017)
Avg. distribution and transmission losses as % of output (2015)
Net electricity imports (2016), GWh
Electrification rate, total (2017) %
Electrification rate, urban (2017 vs 2014) %
Electrification rate, rural (2017 vs 2014) %
Peak demand (Financial year 2017 & 2018), MW
Per capita electricity consumption (2016), kWh
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