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Full meaning African Union Community of Sahel–Saharan States Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Economic Community of West African States Foreign direct investment Gross domestic product Inclining block tariff(s) International Monetary Fund Independent power producer Kilowatt Kilowatt hour Liquid petroleum gas Megawatt Pay as you go Power purchase agreement Private public partnership Standard and Poors Global Ratings Sub-Saharan Africa Transmission and distribution Time of use West African Economic and Monetary Union United Nations Industrial Development Organization Value added tax World Bank Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy A distributed energy system that generates electricity at a centralised location from one or a combination of energy sources and distributes to end-customers typically through a low-voltage grid. mini-grids can be isolated or interconnected with the main grid. Throughout the Country Briefs, a small IPP is defined as any grid-tied system below 10 MW that operates on a power purchase agreement (PPA), with the exclusive goal of feeding energy into the grid (no self-consumption). SHS are off-grid solar products with peak capacities generally between 11 Wp and 350 Wp, powering lights and other small DC appliances such as fans and televisions. They include battery storage for electricity supply outside periods of generation. Pico solar systems are typically below 11 Wp, offering basic energy services such as lighting and cellphone charging. Captive power systems are defined as being ‘behind the meter’ systems whose primary purpose is self consumption. These systems can be off-grid or grid-connected. For the purposes of the Country Briefs, this includes clean cookstoves, improved cookstoves, biogas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cooking systems.

Small Independent Power Producers

Overview
IPP involvement in Burundi started with the 2015 Law on the Reorganisation of the Electricity Sector, which permits private generation of electricity subject to different regimes (declaration, authorisation, concession and PPP). Following the enactment of the law, the government has signed a PPP contract with Gigawatt Global for the Mubuga 7.5 MW solar plant. Project development commenced in 2015 and commissioning was planned for 2018, but progress was delayed by the political crisis of 2015. Construction commenced in January 2020. Contracts were also signed with a consortium consisting of Tauber Solar and Sarako for the Gitega 10 MW and the Bubanza 10 MW solar projects, but little is known about their progress. The government also entered into PPP agreements with larger IPPs, for example, Swedenergy (Kagu 006 12 MW hydro/solar) and Global Synergy Solutions (30 MW waste).

The prevailing regulatory framework is relatively favourable towards IPPs. Private participation in electricity generation is encouraged and procedures regarding interconnection with distribution and transmission grids, PPP procurement, feasibility study authorisation and construction permitting are provided for. Yet, projects are often delayed considerably, as the case of Mubuga shows.
Regulations
Law Nr. 13 of 23 April 2015 on the Reorganisation of the Electricity Sector in Burundi is seen as a milestone for increased private sector involvement. It brings an end to REGIDESO's monopoly in electricity generation. The law permits private generation of electricity, subject to certain conditions. Generation systems above 500 kW require authorisation, while generation systems below 500 kW must only be declared. Hydro projects larger than 1 MW are subject to a concession regime. PPP contracts must be signed if projects are situated on state-owned land.
Decree Nr. 100/130 of June 23, 2016 on the reorganisation of the transmission, distribution and marketing of electricity specifies the authorisation procedure for the construction of transmission and distribution infrastructure and provisions relating to the sale of electricity by independent producers supplying their electricity transmission and distribution grids, quality of electricity and PPAs.
Decree Nr. 100/131 of June 23, 2016 on the generation, import and export of electricity provides for the conditions under which the Ministry can limit or prohibit the generation, import and export of electricity.
Decree Nr. 100/132 of June 23, 2016 on the procedure for the development of a generation plant for exclusive and commercial use requires that the development of a generation plant will commence with feasibility studies authorised by the Ministry, followed by obtaining a construction and operation permit. The decree elaborates on the procedures involved.
Law Nr. 14 of 27 April 2015 on the General Regime of Public-Private Partnership Contracts sets out the procurement and contracting guidelines for PPP contracts.
Decree No. 100/31 of 24 February 2017 on the Procedures applicable to the award of PPP contracts elaborates on prequalification criteria, evaluation processes of shortlisted submissions and general guiding principles pertaining to PPP procurement.

Minigrids

Overview
Burundi does not currently have many operating mini-grids. This is however starting to change. At the end of 2019, a company named Songa Energy successfully raised funding for a 9 MW solar-hydro hybrid project. Consisting of two plants, this project will supply electricity both to the national grid and to a local mini-grid of 20,000 households.

In 2015 the company ENERSOL, in partnership with Etrave installed the 20 kW Kinyinya Hospital solar system, which was expanded to provide electricity to a local mini-grid. A number of international private sector actors including the Spanish Trama TecnoAmbiental have expressed interest in the market.

In the National Development Plan 2018-2027, the government targets the construction of four solar mini-grids, in Ndava/Ryansoro (25 kW), Gatereni/Gitanga (50 kW), Buheka (25 kW) and Kazirabageni/Nyanza-Lac (50 kW). Least cost electrification planning efforts in Burundi indicate that to reach 2030 targets, one third of energy generation capacity would be most affordably provided by mini-grids. A recent geospatial analysis identified 150 suitable mini-grid sites, at locations that are not expected to be electrified by the grid in the short and medium term.
Regulations
Law Nr. 13 of 23 April 2015 on the Reorganisation of the Electricity Sector in Burundi is seen as a milestone for increased private sector involvement. It brings an end to REGIDESO's monopoly in electricity generation. The law permits private generation of electricity, subject to certain conditions. Generation systems above 500 kW require authorisation, while generation systems below 500 kW must only be declared. Hydro projects larger than 1 MW are subject to a concession regime. PPP contracts must be signed if projects are situated on state-owned land. Selling of surplus electricity to the grid is allowed under certain conditions. Generation, transmission and distribution of electricity of capacities up to 1 MW for own use are subject to a declaration regime, while mentioned activities for own use are subject to an authorisation regime if the capacity exceeds 1 MW. The state has a legal monopoly on the main transmission and distribution grid. It can however delegate the construction and operation of isolated grids to non-state entities. This is subject to the requirement of a signed public service delegation contract.
Decree Nr. 100/130 of June 23, 2016 on the reorganisation of the transmission, distribution and marketing of electricity specifies the authorisation procedure for the construction of transmission and distribution infrastructure and provisions relating to the sale of electricity by independent producers supplying their electricity transmission and distribution grids, quality of electricity and PPAs.
Decree Nr. 100/131 of June 23, 2016 on the generation, import and export of electricity provides for the conditions under which the Ministry can limit or prohibit the generation, import and export of electricity.
Decree Nr. 100/132 of June 23, 2016 on the procedure for the development of a generation plant for exclusive and commercial use requires that the development of a generation plant will commence with feasibility studies authorised by the Ministry, followed by obtaining a construction and operation permit. The decree elaborates on the procedures involved.
Law Nr. 14 of 27 April 2015 on the General Regime of Public-Private Partnership Contracts sets out the procurement and contracting guidelines for PPP contracts.
Decree No. 100/31 of 24 February 2017 on the Procedures applicable to the award of PPP contracts elaborates on prequalification criteria, evaluation processes of shortlisted submissions and general guiding principles pertaining to PPP procurement.

SHS/Pico Solar

Overview
The standalone solar market in Burundi is in its infancy. Bizisol, Greenbox Solar, ITCO, Little Sun, Nambiar, Solar Links and Virago are among the key actors involved in distributing and selling standalone solar products in Burundi. Yet, no GOGLA and Lighting Global affiliated sales were recorded in 2018 or 2019. As of 2020 the government, in partnership with development institutions, has been planning to distribute standalone solar products to approximately 65,000 households.

This market, currently unregulated, shows extensive untapped potential. Preliminary least cost electrification planning indicates that one third of power capacity in 2030 would have to come from standalone solutions. The market for standalone systems is estimated at two million households.
Regulations
The market is unregulated. Generally, Law Nr. 13 of 23 April 2015 on the Reorganisation of the Electricity Sector in Burundi is seen as a milestone for increased private sector involvement. It brings an end to REGIDESO's monopoly in electricity generation. The law permits private generation of electricity, subject to a Private Public Partnership regime and authorisation by the Ministry.

Captive Power

Overview
The captive power market in Burundi has seen little activity to date, in comparison to neighbouring countries. Enersol and Etrave installed 150 off-grid rooftop solar systems at 40 health centres across eight provinces in 2015. Distributed Power Africa (DPA) is also active in Burundi. Owned by the Econet Group, the company is installing a 104 kW rooftop solar system at the Econet Leo Centre in Bujumbura. The Kamenge University Hospital in Bujumbura operates a 403 kW grid connected ground mount solar array. In terms of biomass, Moso Sugar Company (SOSUMO) operates a 4 MW cogeneration plant powered by bagasse for its own use, with seasonal operations.

There are no regulations focused on the captive power market. General regulations pertaining to electricity generation would thus apply to captive power.
Regulations
Law Nr. 13 of 23 April 2015 on the Reorganisation of the Electricity Sector in Burundi is seen as a milestone for increased private sector involvement. It brings an end to REGIDESO's monopoly in electricity generation. The law permits private generation of electricity, subject to certain conditions. Generation systems above 500 kW require authorisation, while generation systems below 500 kW must only be declared. Hydro projects larger than 1 MW are subject to a concession regime. PPP contracts must be signed if projects are situated on state-owned land. Selling of surplus electricity to the grid is allowed under certain conditions. Generation, transmission and distribution of electricity of capacities up to 1 MW for own use are subject to a declaration regime, while mentioned activities for own use are subject to an authorisation regime if the capacity exceeds 1 MW.
Decree Nr. 100/131 of June 23, 2016 on the generation, import and export of electricity provides for the conditions under which the Ministry can limit or prohibit the generation, import and export of electricity.
Decree Nr. 100/132 of June 23, 2016 on the procedure for the development of a generation plant for exclusive and commercial use requires that the development of a generation plant will commence with feasibility studies authorised by the Ministry, followed by obtaining a construction and operation permit. The decree elaborates on the procedures involved.
Law Nr. 14 of 27 April 2015 on the General Regime of Public-Private Partnership Contracts sets out the procurement and contracting guidelines for PPP contracts.
Decree No. 100/31 of 24 February 2017 on the Procedures applicable to the award of PPP contracts elaborates on prequalification criteria, evaluation processes of shortlisted submissions and general guiding principles pertaining to PPP procurement.

Clean Cooking

Overview
More than 95% of the population in Burundi rely on burning biomass or solid fuels on open fires or in inefficient cookstoves for cooking purposes. Wood is used by 94.2% of the population. Other fuels include charcoal (5.1%), coal (0.2%) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) (0.2%). The clean cooking sector in Burundi is limited to a few distribution programmes and a small number of commercial sales. Energising Development (EnDev) has been distributing improved cookstoves via third parties and Vulcanex International has been selling the Vulcanex stove, a smoke-free improved wood stove. Other players in the market include Alfaco Bioenergy, Burundi Quality Stoves and KTF Solutions.

The government is also leading clean cooking programmes. The National School Canteens Programme provides 800 schools across the country with free lunches. Approximately 400 of these schools operate clean and improved cookstoves to serve meals for approximately 500 to 800 children a day. As of 2020, the government, in partnership with development institutions, has also been planning to distribute clean cookstoves to approximately 300,000 households and 400 schools by 2026.
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