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Energy Sector

Electricity generation

Uganda has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumption rates in the world. Generation capacity is dominated by hydropower, supported by heavy fuel oil and biomass cogeneration power plants. As in other Sub-Saharan African countries that predominantly rely on hydropower, erratic rainfall and droughts have affected electricity supply in recent years and led to frequent load shedding. Currently, thanks to increased capacity and 50 MW of capacity from heavy fuel oil plants, incidence of load shedding has declined to almost zero. Uganda’s largest hydroelectric power plant is the 250 MW Bujagali plant, which was commissioned in 2012 and almost doubled Uganda’s installed capacity at the time. It is operated by a public-private partnership between the Government of Uganda, investment firm Blackstone, Sithe Global Power and the Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development. The country is under pressure to find additional energy sources, as electricity demand is growing at an annual rate of 10-12%. It also intends to achieve a rural electrification rate of 22% by 2022.


Share of resources in electricity generation as of 2015






Net tariffs per kWh in 3rd quarter of 2015, UGX (tariffs are subject to change)
Umeme West Nile Rural Electrifica­tion Company Ferdsult Engineering Services Kilembe Invest­ments Bundibugyo Electricity Cooperative Society Pader Abim Community Multipurpose Electricity Cooperative Society Kyegegwa Rural Electricity Cooperative Society
Domestic 558.4 557.03 511.91 517.3 515.5 561.6
Commercial 508.6 542.59 477.24 400.8 479.7 532.6 448.4
Medium industrial 471.6
Large industrial 328.7 524.59 316.75

Source: Uganda Electricity Regulatory Authority





Net tariffs per kWh in 3rd quarter of 2015, UGX (tariffs are subject to change)
Off-peak Shoulder Peak Weighted average
Bulk supply 171.2 230.8 276.9 231.9

Source: Uganda Electricity Regulatory Authority

The bulk supply tariff is the price at which Uganda Electricity Transmission Company Limited (UETCL) sells electricity to Umeme and other distribution companies.


Transmission and distribution network

The Ugandan power transmission network consists primarily of 132 kV lines to the various load centres, where power is distributed to the 11 kV and 33 kV distribution network. The transmission backbone runs from Jinja, where the Nalubaale, Kiira and Bujagali hydropower plants are situated, to Kampala. Future plans call for a regional 220 kV network around Lake Victoria. Lines at the Bujagali power station already run at 220kV. The 132 kV network extends to Bukoba in neighbouring Tanzania and to Kenya, via Tororo. There are lower capacity transmission lines (33 kV) to Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Since the establishment of the UETCL, 150 km of 220 kV and 1,441 km of 132 kV transmission lines have been added to the national grid. UETCL maintains and operates 16 substations, ranging from 66 kV to 220 kV. A number of old 132 kV lines are being reconnected to improve the reliability and quality of supply in some areas of the country. Uganda plans to increase the length of the transmission network to 3,400 km as it seeks to boost electricity production and reduce transmission losses.



Key figures

Available statistics:
Official languages
English, Swahili
Population (2014 census), m
Population growth (2014), %
Compound Annual (GDP) Growth Rate, (2011-2015), %
GDP per capita (2015), USD (current rate)
Rural population (2014), % of total
Ease of Doing Business Index (2014)
150 (of 189)
Median age of population, years (2014 est.)
Inflation (2014), %
National currency
Ugandan Shilling (UGX/USh)
Installed generation capacity (2015), MW
Installed fossil fuel capacity (2015), MW
Hydro capacity (2015), MW
Other RE capacity (2015), MW
Renewable electricity output (2014), % of total electricity output excl. hydro
Current expansion plans (to 2017), MW
Average distribution and transmission losses (2011), % of output
Net electricity imports (2012), GWh
Peak demand (2015), MW
Per capita electricity consumption (2014), kWh
Electrification rate (2012), total, %
Electrification rate, urban (2012), %
Electrification rate, rural (2012), %
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