Ministry of Energy and Power Development (MEPD)
The Ministry of Energy and Power Development has overall responsibility for energy issues in Zimbabwe. Its mandate includes policy formulation, performance monitoring and regulation of the energy sector as well as research, development and promotion of new and renewable sources of energy. The Ministry supervises and oversees the performance of the energy utility and its subsidiaries. The current acting minister is Samuel Undenge.
Zimbabwe Electricity Regulatory Authority (ZERA)
The Zimbabwe Energy Regulatory Authority (ZERA) is a statutory body established in terms of the Energy Regulatory Act 2011 read in conjunction with the Electricity Act of 2002 and the Petroleum Act of 2006. ZERA’s primary function is to regulate the energy sector. The agency seeks to create an enabling environment for competition and thus promotes an efficient electricity supply industry. The Energy Regulatory Act confers upon ZERA the authority to license any and all players in generation, transmission, distribution and supply of electricity as well as to regulate and approve tariffs.
Rural Electrification Agency (REA) and Rural Electrification Fund (REF)
The government recognizes the fact that rural electrification is a major pillar in enhancing socio-economic development in rural communities. As a result, it established the Rural Electrification Fund (REF) in 2002 and later the Rural Electrification Agency (REA). The agency’s main focus is to spearhead rapid and equitable electrification of rural areas in Zimbabwe. To date, the rural electrification program has enabled the electrification of more than 5,000 rural institutions, farms, villages, boreholes, dam points and irrigation schemes.
The National Energy Policy 2012 puts emphasis on the coordination of the electrification program, setting of realistic targets and the determination of the appropriate mix of on- and off-grid technologies by the government.
Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA)
The Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) is a state-owned and only company whose task is to generate, transmit and distribute electricity. It delegated these tasks to its subsidiaries, the energy generator Zimbabwe Power Company and the Zimbabwe Electricity Transmission and Distribution Company. Further subsidiaries are the investment branch ZESA Enterprises and the internet provider PowerTel Communications (Pvt) ltd.
The company’s mandate includes:
- Safeguarding the government’s interests in ZESA and the Electricity Supply Industry
- Coordinating the government’s policy issues relating to the Electricity Industry
- Controlling group financial resources
- Reporting on group performances
- Managing cost efficiency and service quality to customers
- Optimization of benefits to be realized through privatization, protection and growth of shareholder value
- Promoting and underwriting prudent utility practice in the unbundling subsidiaries
- Ensure Strategic Planning and Risk Management
- Ensuring Feasibility, research and development activities
- New business development
- Regional and International Relations
Zimbabwe Power Company (ZPC)
The Zimbabwe Power Company (ZPC) became operational in 1999 as an investment vehicle in the generation of electricity. The organization has been authorized to construct, own, operate and maintain power generation stations for the supply of electricity.
ZPC currently operates four coal-fired power stations, Hwange, Bulawayo, Munyati and Harare thermal stations and the hydro power station Kariba. They have a total of 1,960 MW of installed capacity.
Each power station holds a generation license from the Zimbabwe Electricity Regulatory Authority. The company’s mandate is to generate electricity for the domestic market. The small thermal power stations operate as embedded generators (i.e. power stations that are directly connected to the distribution network) but are only dispatched to meet supply shortfalls.
Zimbabwe Electricity Transmission and Distribution Company (ZETDC)
The Zimbabwe Electricity Transmission and Distribution Company (ZETDC) is a subsidiary of ZESA Holdings. ZETDC is responsible for the transmission of electricity from the power stations, the distribution of electricity as well as its retailing to end users. Its mission is to provide adequate, safe, reliable electricity and related services at competitive prices. The company combines two branches: The Zimbabwe Electricity Distribution Company is in charge of the distribution and retail of electricity to the end user. It is responsible for the distribution asset management and carries out network planning, development, operation and maintenance. The branch also intends to widen the customer base and conducts the pricing. The Zimbabwe Electricity Transmission Company balances supply and demand and the transmission of electricity from domestic generation plants as well as electricity trading in the Southern African Power Pool.
ZETDC has been struggling financially within the last years. In February 2015, the CEO of ZPC stated that ZETDC owed the power generator more than 558 million USD. ZETDC had tried earlier to raise the electricity tariffs. These efforts, however, were rejected by the Regulatory Authority.
Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA)
The Zimbabwe National Water Authority is a wholly Government owned entity tasked with managing the country’s water resources. The Authority was created through the ZINWA Act as part of the Government’s efforts to reform the country’s water sector.
Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ)
SAZ is mandated to facilitate the development and use of standards for technologies, industries, and business in Zimbabwe. As of 2015, SAZ was reportedly partnering with ZERA to setup a solar equipment testing laboratory.
Industrial Development Corporation of Zimbabwe
The Industrial Development Corporation of Zimbabwe Limited (IDCZ) is a self-financing, national Development Finance Institution (DFI) established in 1963. It is a wholly Government-owned state enterprises, however is registered in terms of Companies Act (Section 3) of Zimbabwe as a limited liability company.
Zimbabwe Investment Authority
The Zimbabwe Investment Authority (ZIA) is the country’s investment promotion body set up to promote and facilitate both foreign direct investment and local investment. ZIA is an institution born out of the merger of the Export Processing Zones Authority (EPZA) and the Zimbabwe Investment Centre (ZIC) to create a one stop shop for investment facilitation. Investors and developers can work with ZIA on issues related to investment license applications; visa, residence, and work permit considerations; and the navigation of various government agencies.