Full meaning African Union Community of Sahel–Saharan States Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Economic Community of West African States Investimento direto estrangeiro Produto interno bruto Inclining block tariff(s) International Monetary Fund Independent power producer Kilowatt Kilowatt hour Gás de petróleo líquido Megawatt Pay as you go Power purchase agreement Private public partnership Standard and Poors Global Ratings Sub-Saharan Africa Transmissão e Distribuição Time of use West African Economic and Monetary Union United Nations Industrial Development Organization Value added tax World Bank Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy Projecção para 2030 2017/2018 ano do relatório A média SSA inclui a África do Sul. Cálculo para a média da ASS e dados do país: Consumo total (2016) / população total (2016). Média Àfrica subsariana : 18% Isto inclui os subsídios ao gasóleo, querosene e gasolina. As taxas e tarifas foram convertidas com a taxa de câmbio média para o Euro em Abril de 2020. Taxas de câmbio disponíveis em ec.europa.eu As taxas e tarifas foram convertidas com a taxa de câmbio média para o Euro em Abril de 2020. Taxas de câmbio disponíveis em ec.europa.eu As taxas e tarifas foram convertidas com a taxa de câmbio média para o Euro em Abril de 2020. Taxas de câmbio disponíveis em ec.europa.eu

Sector energético

Visão Geral do Investimento
Madagascar's energy sector has a high installed capacity relative to its demand, although electrification and consumption rates remain low. In 2018, an average of 560 MW of its installed capacity (844 MW) was operational, with peak demand at 350 MW. The energy supply relies heavily on hydroelectric power, with more than 20% being generated from small-scale hydro plants.

Only a quarter of the country is electrified and even in urban areas less than half of the population has access to electricity. The result is an annual consumption below 70 kWh per capita, or about 17% of the Sub-Saharan average. The government is targeting 70% national electrification by 2030 and plans to increase installed capacity by 900 MW to 1,755 MW to achieve this.

Madagascar has incorporated private electricity generation into their energy mix through various different agreement types. Several IPPs and rural operators are operational in the country and currently serve a significant portion of the population. Transmission and distribution has also been opened to private involvement but participation and investment remains in its infancy.

The renewable energy potential in the country is increasingly being utilised as projects continue to emerge. Currently under development is a 35 MW hydroelectric and solar hybrid power plant in the capital, Antananarivo. Meanwhile the country’s largest employer, Groupe Filatex, is busy finalising solar plants in four cities with a combined capacity of 50 MW. The company is planning to install another 50 MW in the near future.

Estrutura

Madagascan law currently allows for private companies to generate electricity in the country. Some companies supply Jiro sy rano Malagasy (JIRAMA), the national utility under IPP or rental power agreements. Others operate minigrids under concessions from the government to electrify rural villages. Some standalone off-grid systems distributed and operated by the private sector have started filling the service gap left by public electricity service. These systems are estimated to serve about as many households as are served by the national grid.

Currently more than 30 organisations have the authorisation required for small-scale electricity generation. In general they generate power using diesel, biomass, or small hydro generators with capacities ranging from 40 kW to slightly more than 200 kW.

JIRAMA has historically administered the transmission and distribution of electricity across the country's grid. More recently, the electricity sector is governed by the 2017-20 law which was passed to reform the sector by inviting private participation into generation, transmission and distribution activities.
Generation:

Jiro sy rano Malagasy (JIRAMA), the national utility, was responsible for approximately 50% of total generation on a concession basis as of February 2019.

The other half of generation was covered by IPPs and captive plants selling excess to JIRAMA.

Transmission:

JIRAMA is responsible for all electricity transmission. The three main national grids on the island include Antananarivo, Fianarantsoa and Toamasina. The Antananarivo and Fianarantsoa grids are interconnected.

Distribution:

JIRAMA operates interconnected distribution grids, five large isolated distribution grids (Toamasina, Mahajanga, Antsiranana, Toliara and Nosy Be) and 130 smaller isolated minigrids. It supplies electricity to approximately 114 cities, towns and villages.

l'Agence de Développement de l'Electrification Rurale (Rural Electrification Agency) (ADER) also operates isolated grids.
Jiro sy rano Malagasy (JIRAMA) is the vertically-integrated state-owned water and electricity utility responsible for electricity generation, transmission and distribution. Established in 1975, it is supervised by the Ministry of Finance and Budget and the Ministry of Water, Energy and Hydrocarbons.

l’Agence de Développement de l'Electrification Rurale (ADER) (Rural Electrification Agency), established in 2002, is responsible for rural electrification through grid extension and/or off-grid and minigrid systems. It aims for electrification primarily by means of renewable energy sources (in order of priority: hydro, solar, biomass, wind, hybrids). The organisation’s tasks include site identification, tender management and quality oversight of concessionaires.
Ministère de l'Eau, de l'Énergie et des Hydrocarbures (MEH) (The Ministry of Water, Energy and Hydrocarbons) sets government policy and provides strategic coordination of the energy sector and oversight of JIRAMA’s electricity sector activities.
Autorité de Régulation de l'Electricité (ARELEC) (The Electricity Sector Regulator), previously ORE, has three objectives: Set tariffs and oversee their application, oversee the quality of power supplied in Madagascar and oversee private participation. The name has been revised as per the 2017 Electricity Code, but as of May 2020 the website still indicated ORE.
The Economic Development Board of Madagascar (EDBM) is an agency of the presidency that promotes investment and strives to improve the business environment in Madagascar. It works with ADER to identify and attract investors to the Malagasy energy sector. For example, it assists investors with registering a company in Madagascar and obtaining permits.

IPPs supply power to JIRAMA under IPP and rental power arrangements. There are approximately 80 IPP and rental projects countrywide.

Actores-chave

Mapa da rede de abastecimento
Transmissão (OMS)
Distribuição (prevista)
Objectivos de electrificação
Utilidade/distribuidor
Jiro sy rano Malagasy (JIRAMA) is the vertically-integrated state-owned water and electricity utility responsible for electricity generation, transmission and distribution. Established in 1975, it is supervised by the Ministry of Finance and Budget and the Ministry of Water, Energy and Hydrocarbons.

l’Agence de Développement de l'Electrification Rurale (ADER) (Rural Electrification Agency), established in 2002, is responsible for rural electrification through grid extension and/or off-grid and minigrid systems. It aims for electrification primarily by means of renewable energy sources (in order of priority: hydro, solar, biomass, wind, hybrids). The organisation’s tasks include site identification, tender management and quality oversight of concessionaires.
Ministério (Ministérios)
Ministère de l'Eau, de l'Énergie et des Hydrocarbures (MEH) (The Ministry of Water, Energy and Hydrocarbons) sets government policy and provides strategic coordination of the energy sector and oversight of JIRAMA’s electricity sector activities.
Regulador
Autorité de Régulation de l'Electricité (ARELEC) (The Electricity Sector Regulator), previously ORE, has three objectives: Set tariffs and oversee their application, oversee the quality of power supplied in Madagascar and oversee private participation. The name has been revised as per the 2017 Electricity Code, but as of May 2020 the website still indicated ORE.
Outros
The Economic Development Board of Madagascar (EDBM) is an agency of the presidency that promotes investment and strives to improve the business environment in Madagascar. It works with ADER to identify and attract investors to the Malagasy energy sector. For example, it assists investors with registering a company in Madagascar and obtaining permits.

IPPs supply power to JIRAMA under IPP and rental power arrangements. There are approximately 80 IPP and rental projects countrywide.

Tarifas

Componentes tarifários
Baixa voltagem
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):
€0.13

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Fixed Charge (€/month)
Residential economical: €0.23
Residential (3 kW): €1.91
Residential (>3 kW): €1.91
Non-residential economical: €0.23
Others: €2.61

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Demand Charge (€/ kW/month) (economical class exempt):
Residential (3 kW): €0.62 (average of zones)
Residential (>3 kW): €0.62 (average of zones)
Others: €0.84 (average of zones)

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Tax (%):
20% VAT (Residential consumption below 100 kWh per month exempt)

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Fond National de l'Electricité (FNE) (Rural Electrification Levy) (%):
1.25% of energy bill

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Tensão média
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):








Fixed Charge (€/month):
Industrial long use: €52.22
Industrial short use: $52.22
Industrial TOU customers: €60.58
Others long use: €54.49
Others short use: €54.49
Others TOU customers: €63.21

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Demand Charge (€/ kW/month):
Industrial long use: €9.64 (average across zones)
Industrial short use: €9.64 (average across zones)
Industrial TOU customers: €8.70 (average across zones)
Others long use: €10.06 (average across zones)
Others short use: €10.06 (average across zones)
Others TOU customers: €9.57 (average across zones)

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Tax (%):
20% VAT

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Fond National de l'Electricité (FNE) (Rural Electrification Levy) (%):
1.25% of energy bill

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Alta tensão
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):









€0.08

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.

Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Fixed Charge (€/month):
Zone 1 TOU: €67.37

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Demand Charge (€/ kW/month):
€10.03

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Tax (%):
20% VAT

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Fond National de l'Electricité (FNE) (Rural Electrification Levy) (%):
1.25% of energy bill

These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer's electricity.
Zone 1: Hydro
Zone 2: Heavy fuel oil
Zone 3: Diesel
Tarifa média de venda a retalho por categoria de consumo
Baixa voltagem (c/ kWh)
Average LV
12.5
Residential Economical (average of zones and their IBTs)
12.2
Residential (3 kW; average of zones and their IBTs)
12
Residential (>3 kW; average of zones and their IBTs)
12
Non-Residential Economical (average of zones and their IBTs)
12.5
Non-Residential Other (average of zones)
13.9
Note
These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer\'s electricity.\n\nZone 1: Hydro\nZone 2: Heavy fuel oil\nZone 3: Diesel
Média voltagem (c/ kWh)
Average MV
16.1
Industrial Long Use (average of zones)
12.6
Industrial Short Use (average of zones)
14.2
Industrial TOU (average of day, night & peak tariffs across zones)
14.3
Other Long Use (average of zones)
18.3
Other Short Use (average of zones)
19
Other TOU (average of day, night & peak tariffs across zones)
18
Note
These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer\'s electricity.\n\nZone 1: Hydro\nZone 2: Heavy fuel oil\nZone 3: Diesel
Alta voltagem (c/ kWh)
Average HV
8
Zone 1 TOU (average of day, night and peak)
8
Note
These tariffs apply to JIRAMA specifically. Tariffs of rural electrification concessions differ. Zones refer to the generation source of a customer\'s electricity.\n\nZone 1: Hydro\nZone 2: Heavy fuel oil\nZone 3: Diesel
A tarifa da electricidade a retalho está sujeita a revisão periódica?
No
Every five years the national regulator issues cost based tariff calculation formulas and tariff ceilings. Distribution concession holders can apply to the regulator for tariff rates within these bounds. Latest tariff revision was April 2018.

Normas de qualidade

Bureau des Normes de Madagascar (BNM) (National Standards Body) sets quality standards for a variety of industries, including energy.

ARELEC/ORE also has technical standards in force, pertaining to the energy sector. It focuses mainly on transmission and distribution. Solar PV standards, based on IEC standards, were proposed, but not yet published.

Law Nr 2013-13 on the production and commercialisation of combustible ethanol and its subsequent decrees specifies quality standards for ethanol stoves in Madagascar.

Explorar os dados

Taxa de electrificação
% Taxa de electrificação nacional
2018
% Taxa de electrificação rural
2018
% Taxa de electrificação urbana
2018
Capacidade total instalada (MW)
2030
1,755
2018
844
Pico de procura (MW)
2025
N/A
2018
350
Electricity consumption by sector (MWh), 2017
Commercial & Public Services
N/A
Residential
N/A
Industrial
N/A
Consumo de electricidade per capita (kWh/pessoa)
2016
63.75
SSA average (2016)
365.6
Potencial de recursos solares fotovoltaicos (faixa de saída, kWh/kWp)
3.5 - 5.2
Potencial de recursos eólicos (gama de velocidade do vento, metro por segundo)
2.5 - 9.5
Recurso Potencial (pequena central hidroeléctrica) MW
977.1
Combinação de electricidade por fonte (% da capacidade instalada), 2018
Solar (2.49 %)
Pequenas centrais hidroeléctricas (20.02 %)
Outros (77.49 %)
Preço do gasóleo por litro (EUR)
Perdas técnicas em Transmissão e Distribuição (% da geração)
2018
13.00%
Subsídios à electricidade e aos produtos petrolíferos (% do PIB)
Subsídios para a electricidade, 2017
1.03%
€105,728,400.00
Subsídios aos produtos petrolíferos , 2017
0.00%
IMF reports $0.00 in billions of dollars. Most likely the subsidy amount in Madagascar is too small to be considered on this scale.
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