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Full meaning Union africaine Communauté des États sahélo-sahariens Marché commun de l'Afrique orientale et australe Communauté économique des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest Les investissements directs étrangers Produit intérieur brut Tarifs par tranches Fonds monétaire international Petits producteurs d'énergie indépendants Kilowatt Kilowatt heure Gaz de pétrole liquide Megawatt Pay as you go Contrat d'achat d'électricité Partenariats public-privé Standard and Poors Global Ratings Afrique subsaharienne Transmission et distribution Time of use Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine United Nations Industrial Development Organization Taxe Sur La Valeur Ajoutee Indicateurs réglementaires de la Banque mondiale pour l'énergie durable Un système d'énergie distribué qui produit de l'électricité à partir d'une ou plusieurs sources d'énergie et qui la distribue aux clients finaux, généralement par l'intermédiaire d'un réseau à basse tension. Les mini-réseaux peuvent être isolés ou interconnectés avec le réseau principal. Dans les mémoires sur les pays, un petit IPP (Independent Power Producer) est défini comme tout système relié au réseau électrique de moins de 10 MW fonctionnant selon un contrat d'achat d'électricité (PPA), dans le but exclusif d'alimenter le réseau en énergie (pas d'autoconsommation). Les systèmes solaires domestiques (SHS) sont des produits solaires hors réseau avec des capacités de pointe généralement entre 11Wp et 350 Wp, alimentant les lumières et autres petits appareils à courant continu tels que les ventilateurs et les téléviseurs. Ils comprennent le stockage de la batterie pour l'approvisionnement en électricité en dehors des périodes de production. Les systèmes solaires Pico sont typiquement inférieurs à 11Wp, offrant des services énergétiques de base tels que l'éclairage et la recharge des téléphones portables. Les systèmes d'alimentation électrique captive sont définis comme étant des systèmes "derrière le compteur" dont l'objectif principal est la propre consommation. Ces systèmes peuvent être hors réseau ou raccordés au réseau. Aux fins des Country Briefs, cela comprend les cuisinières propres, les cuisinières améliorées, le biogaz et les systèmes de cuisson au gaz de pétrole liquéfié (GPL).

Petits producteurs d'énergie indépendants

Aperçu
Despite only one operational small IPP plant, the Eswatini government is supportive of attracting private participation in electricity generation in the form of IPPs. The Electricity Act of 2007 demonstrates this, as well as the IPP Policy.

Buckswood 100 kW solar in Siteki, commissioned in March 2015, is the only operational small IPP project. The plant is operated and owned by Wundersight. The company is also developing the Wunder Solar 850 kW solar in Siteki. Construction started in 2017 but little is known about its progress. The Lavumisa 10 MW solar plant is currently under construction by Consolidated Infrastructure Group, but the project is owned by EEC. Operations are scheduled to commence in August 2020. Finally, planning on the Lower Maguduza small IPP hydro project commenced in 2017. The project is envisaged to be approximately 10 MW, with completion scheduled for 2021.
Règlements
The Electricity Act of 2007 was promulgated to regulate generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. It requires all companies involved in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity to apply for licence from ESERA. Licence holders need to comply with all relevant by-laws and other ESERA procedures and quality standards. The Act further stipulates that tariffs are regulated, and allows licencees to recover full costs and a reasonable return on capital invested. Off-grid systems, mini-grids and projects selling less than 1 GWh per year are exempt from applying for a licence.
The Electricity licencing Bylaws (2016) exempts the following systems from requiring a licence: Self-generators of less than 100 kW, off-grid systems and mini-grids. This is a bylaw and not an amendment act, which would deem these provisions to be additive instead of replacement of provisions in the 2007 act.
The Grid Connection Code for Renewable Power Plants Connected to the Electricity Transmission System or the Distribution System (2014) specifies minimum technical requirements for renewable energy plants wishing to connect to the grid. It applies to PV, CSP, small hydro, landfill gas, biomass, biogas and wind technologies.
The Metering Code (2014) stipulates requirements relating to meter installation, metering data and accuracy of the equipment.

Mini-réseaux

Aperçu
As of end 2020, Eswatini did not have any installed or operational mini-grids (public or private). The government has, however, exempted mini-grids from having to apply for generation and distribution licences as per the Electricity Act and the licensing bylaws. The government's policy stance is also favourable towards mini-grids - the IPP Policy states that mini-grids in areas least likely to be grid connected ought to be prioritised. Eswatini has also committed to reducing carbon dioxide emissions through a variety of approaches including the implementation of “small scale, decentralised renewable energy technologies to improve energy access in rural areas.”
Règlements
The Electricity Act of 2007 was promulgated to regulate generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. It requires all companies involved in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity to apply for licence from ESERA. Licence holders need to comply with all relevant by-laws and other ESERA procedures and quality standards. The Act further stipulates that tariffs are regulated, and allows licencees to recover full costs and a reasonable return on capital invested. Off-grid systems, mini-grids and projects selling less than 1 GWh per year are exempt from applying for a licence.
The Electricity licencing Bylaws (2016) exempt the following systems from requiring a licence: Self-generators of less than 100 kW, off-grid systems and mini-grids. This is a bylaw and not an amendment act, which would deem these provisions to be additive instead of replacement of provisions in the 2007 Act.
The Grid Connection Code for Renewable Power Plants Connected to the Electricity Transmission System or the Distribution System (2014) specifies minimum technical requirements for renewable energy plants wishing to connect to the grid. It applies to PV, CSP, small hydro, landfill gas, biomass, biogas and wind technologies.
The Metering Code (2014) stipulates requirements relating to meter installation, metering data and accuracy of the equipment.

SHS\Pico Solar

Aperçu
The potential of small scale off-grid solar in Eswatini remains untapped, with no GOGLA or Lighting Global affiliated sales recorded in 2018 or 2019. The National Energy Policy of Eswatini was recently reviewed and the implementation strategy updated before commencing in January 2018. They prioritise the use of solar home systems and other off-grid generation, particularly for rural areas where grid extension is too expensive. To this end, the Government of Eswatini is evaluating the participation of the private sector to implement many off-grid electrification interventions.
Règlements
The Electricity Act of 2007 was promulgated to regulate generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. It requires all companies involved in generation, transmission and distribution of electricity to apply for a licence from ESERA. Licence holders need to comply with all relevant by-laws and other ESERA procedures and quality standards. The Act further stipulates that tariffs are regulated, and allows licencees to recover full costs and a reasonable return on capital invested. Off-grid systems, mini-grids and projects selling less than 1 GWh per year are exempt from applying for a licence.
The Electricity licencing Bylaws (2016) exempt the following systems from requiring a licence: Self-generators of less than 100 kW, off-grid systems and mini-grids. This is a bylaw and not an amendment act, which would deem these provisions to be additive instead of replacement of provisions in the 2007 Act.

Énergie captive

Aperçu
Eswatini has a handful of solar, wind and biomass captive power projects currently being planned or already operating in the country. Sugar millers account for the vast majority of captive power plants, which use mostly bagasse as fuel for co-generation. These companies sell their excess energy to the grid, and may soon be allowed to sell directly to large customers.

Royal Eswatini Sugar Corporation operates three biomass plants totalling 65.5 MW installed capacity while Ubombo Sugar Limited has its own 1 MW hydro plant and 40 MW biomass plant. Swaziland Plantations operates a seasonal 800 kW hydro plant close to Piggs Peak.

In addition to agroforestry, a 400kW solar-biomass hybrid system is under development by Wundersight at the Good Shepherd hospital in Siteki. Ecolibri has also implemented two 118 kW wind-solar hybrid systems at Tikhuba School in Siteki and at Amadi University in Mbabane respectively. Watts Up Solar also provides captive power solutions in the country.

The IPP Policy proposed that captive power projects are included in the overall energy planning process, while the country’s 2018 energy master plan explicitly outlines captive biomass projects in their base case scenario. The electricity licensing bylaws have also exempted captive power projects below 100 kW from having to apply for a generation license. The government targets the installation of 13,000 residential solar systems of 1.5 kW each and 15,000 institutional solar systems of 50 kW each in rural areas between 2019 and 2024
Règlements
The Electricity Act of 2007 was promulgated to regulate generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. It requires all companies involved in generation, transmission and distribution of electricity to apply for a licence from ESERA. Licence holders need to comply with all relevant by-laws and other ESERA procedures and quality standards. The Act further stipulates that tariffs are regulated, and allows licencees to recover full costs and a reasonable return on capital invested. Off-grid systems, mini-grids and projects selling less than 1 GWh per year are exempt from applying for a licence.
The Electricity licencing Bylaws (2016) exempts the following systems from requiring a licence: Self-generators of less than 100 kW, off-grid systems and mini-grids. This is a bylaw and not an amendment Act, which would deem these provisions to be additive instead of replacement of provisions in the 2007 Act.
The Grid Connection Code for Renewable Power Plants Connected to the Electricity Transmission System or the Distribution System (2014) specifies minimum technical requirements for renewable energy plants wishing to connect to the grid. It applies to PV, CSP, small hydro, landfill gas, biomass, biogas and wind technologies.
The Metering Code (2014) stipulates requirements relating to meter installation, metering data and accuracy of the equipment.

Cuisine propre

Aperçu
Eswatini has made good progress in increasing clean cooking fuels in urban areas, with only 14% of the urban population relying on solid fuels for cooking purposes. However, the penetration of clean cooking solutions in rural areas is still low with 77% of the population using solid fuels for cooking. This means that about 50% of the entire population has access to clean cooking solutions. The primary cooking fuel, used by 72% of the population, is wood, followed by liquid petroleum gas (LPG) at 11% of the population. New Dawn Engineering and Watts Up Solar are examples of companies that sell improved cooking solutions.

In 2018, the government introduced the Kingdom of Eswatini Energy Master Plan 2034 which has set the target of increasing the portion of the population relying on a clean and sustainable cooking alternative to increase to 75%. It will achieve this through policy-based interventions such as rebate programmes to encourage households to use clean cookstoves.
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