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Secteur de l'énergie

Aperçu de l'investissement
Eswatini’s energy sector has historically been unable to meet the country’s demand, relying heavily on electricity imports from neighboring South Africa. In 2018, the country's peak demand exceeded its average operational capacity of 61 MW threefold. Despite the shortfall in local generation, the country boasts an impressive electrification rate of nearly 90% and moderate tariffs mostly averaging below €c10/kWh. With a population of less than 1.2 million people, per capita electricity consumption is high at more than 3.5 the Sub-Saharan Africa average.

The country is targeting universal access to electricity by 2022, which, given its relatively small geography and high rates currently is a realistic target. Peak demand is set to grow by about 100 MW to 330 MW by 2025. Meanwhile, installed capacity is set to increase almost sixfold by 2030 to 410 MW, which could see the country move closer to energy independence.

Private companies are active primarily in the generation component of the electricity supply sector in the country. One IPP is already operational and more are planned. The government recently released a coherent IPP policy which provides guidance to sector participants and indicates a generally positive policy direction. Transmission and distribution components remain monopolised in the national utility, however some municipal councils have expressed interest in distributing energy. This may pave the way for unbundling and potential private participation. The country’s most recent Energy Masterplan published in 2018 highlights a national focus on promoting the use of renewable energy and enabling private sector participation to achieve this.

In 2019 the Kingdom of Eswatini began the procurement process for two new renewable energy plants. The national regulator is seeking IPPs to develop a 40 MW solar facility in 2020 and a 40 MW biomass plant in 2021 respectively. By October of 2019 the regulator had received 26 proposals, from which 13 bidders were selected.

Structure

The Kingdom of Eswatini outlines a concerted shift to increasing use of renewable energies involving the private sector in its latest Energy Masterplan 2034, published in 2018. Since the previous iteration of the master plan and the subsequent National Energy Policy of 2003, the country’s energy sector has undergone significant reform.

The government has completed a comprehensive IPP policy to provide guidance to grow the sector, including the renewable energy subsector. One IPP project is already operational and more are planned.

Transmission and most of the distribution infrastructure is owned and operated under a monopoly by the Eswatini national utility, Eswatini Electricity Co (EEC; formerly known as Swaziland Electricity Co, or SEC). However, current law allows prospective energy companies to use this infrastructure for electricity trade subject to wheeling charges.
Generation:

Eswatini Electricity Company (EEC) generated 21% of electricity in 2019. IPPs & grid connected captive power projects (Wundersight and Ubombo sugar) generated 5% in the same year. Imports accounted for 74%.

Transmission:

EEC is responsible for all transmission. By 2019, its transmission lines covered 1,429 km and ranged from 66 kV to 400 kV.

Distribution:

EEC is responsible for all distribution. By 2019, its distribution lines covered 20,966 km.
The Eswatini Electricity Company (EEC) has a monopoly on transmission and distribution and generates most of the electricity. To date, the EEC is still wholly owned by the Government of Eswatini.
The Energy Department of the Ministry of Natural Resources & Energy oversees policy and operational activities pertaining to the energy sector.

The Energy Policy Advisory Committee advises the Ministry of Natural Resources & Energy on policy directions in the energy sector.
The Energy Regulatory Authority Act of 2007 establishes the Eswatini Energy Regulatory Authority (ESERA). The authority is tasked with enforcing compliance standards, approving tariffs, adjudicating concerns from consumers and promoting efficiency in the energy industry.
The Eswatini Investment Promotion Authority promotes business opportunities with investors and assists with permitting and registration.

The Renewable Energy Association of Eswatini is a renewable energy advocacy organisation in Eswatini.

The only operating IPP is Wundersight. Captive power projects such as the 40 MW biomass plant at Ubombo Sugar Limited sell excess power to the grid on the basis of a power purchase agreement.

Acteurs clés

Carte de localisation de réseaux
Transmission (OSIM)
Distribution (prévue)
Objectifs en matière d'électricité
Utilitaire/distributeur
The Eswatini Electricity Company (EEC) has a monopoly on transmission and distribution and generates most of the electricity. To date, the EEC is still wholly owned by the Government of Eswatini.
Ministère (ministères)
The Energy Department of the Ministry of Natural Resources & Energy oversees policy and operational activities pertaining to the energy sector.

The Energy Policy Advisory Committee advises the Ministry of Natural Resources & Energy on policy directions in the energy sector.
Régulateur
The Energy Regulatory Authority Act of 2007 establishes the Eswatini Energy Regulatory Authority (ESERA). The authority is tasked with enforcing compliance standards, approving tariffs, adjudicating concerns from consumers and promoting efficiency in the energy industry.
Autres
The Eswatini Investment Promotion Authority promotes business opportunities with investors and assists with permitting and registration.

The Renewable Energy Association of Eswatini is a renewable energy advocacy organisation in Eswatini.

The only operating IPP is Wundersight. Captive power projects such as the 40 MW biomass plant at Ubombo Sugar Limited sell excess power to the grid on the basis of a power purchase agreement.

Tarifs

Composants tarifaires
Basse tension
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):
€0.09

ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released by the time of writing. Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Access Charge (€/kVA/year):
Non-TOU Smallholder irrigation: €2.51
Non-TOU large irrigation: €2.96
TOU Smallholder irrigation: €2.75
All other LV TOU: €2.96

ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released by the time of writing. Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Facility Charge (€/month):
General LV: €10.51
Small commercial prepaid: €10.51
Non-TOU small irrigation: €93.17
Non-TOU large irrigation: €109.61
TOU Smallholder irrigation: €78.24
All other LV TOU: €92.05

ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released by the time of writing. Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Demand Charge (€/kVA/month):
Non-TOU Smallholder irrigation: €7.39
Non-TOU large irrigation: €7.58
TOU Smallholder irrigation: €7.39
All other LV TOU: €8.69

ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released by the time of writing. Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Tension moyenne
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):
€0.08

ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released by the time of writing. Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Access Charge (€/kVA/year):
Large C&I: €2.96
All MV TOU customers: €3.08

ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released by the time of writing. Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Facility Charge (€/month):
Large C&I: €1209.61
All MV TOU customers: €122.36

ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released by the time of writing. Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Demand Charge (€/kVA/month):
Large C&I: €8.69
All MV TOU customers: €8.27

ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released by the time of writing. Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Haute tension
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):







€0.09

ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released by the time of writing. Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Access Charge (€/kVA/year):
All HV TOU customers: €2.94

ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released by the time of writing. Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Facility Charge (€/month):
All HV TOU customers: €254.25

ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released by the time of writing. Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Demand Charge (€/kVA/month):
All HV TOU customers: €7.90

ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released by the time of writing. Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Tarif de détail moyen par catégorie de consommation
Basse tension (c€/kWh)
Average LV
8.7
General LV
12.2
Residential (average between lifeline and general residential)
8.6
Small Commercial (average between prepaid and postpaid)
12.2
Non-TOU Smallholder Irrigation
4.7
Non-TOU Large Irrigation
5.5
Smallholder Irrigation TOU (average between peak, standard and offpeak, across low-use and high-use)
8.3
All other LV TOU (average between peak, standard and offpeak, across low-use and high-use)
9.7
Note
Autorité de Regulation de l\'Electricité (ARELEC) (The Electricity Sector Regulator), previously ORE, has three objectives: Set tariffs and oversee their application, oversee the quality of power supplied in Madagascar, and oversee private participation. The name has been revised as per the 2017 Electricity Code, but as of May 2020 website still shows ORE. \nINSERT ORE website URL
Tension moyenne (€c/kWh)
Average MV
7.5
Large Commercial & Industrial
5.5
TOU at MV (average between peak, standard and offpeak, across low-use and high-use)
9.5
Note
ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released at the time of writing (May 2020). Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Haute tension (c€/kWh)
Average HV
9.2
TOU at HV (average between peak, standard and offpeak, across low-use and high-use)\n
9.2
Note
ESERA approved an increase in February 2020. Updated tariffs were yet to be released at the time of writing (May 2020). Tariffs reported here were in effect at the time of writing.
Le tarif de détail de l'électricité fait-il l'objet d'un réexamen périodique?
No
Registered entities are permitted to submit tariff applications for review annually before 1 November. These are calculated using a Multi-Year Price Determination (MYPD) model.

In January of 2020 the Eswatini Energy Regulatory Authority (ESERA) held a series of public hearings as part of its application for a tariff review process for 2020/21 and 2021/2022.

Normes de qualité

The Eswatini Standards Authority (SWASA) applies quality standards in a range of categories. The electrical and mechanical engineering category includes the most relevant standards for the energy sector. These include SZN 028:2013 (Electricity supply - quality of supply) and SZN SANS 10142-1:2009 (The wiring of premises Part 1: Low voltage installations). SWASA also applies a wide range of standards in the health and safety, environment, building & construction and IT categories.

Explorer les données

Taux d'électrification
% Taux d'électrification national
2018
% Taux d'électrification rural
2018
% Taux d'électrification urbain
2018
Puissance installée totale (MW)
2030
410
2018
70
Demande de pointe (MW)
2025
329
2018
238
Electricity consumption by sector (MWh), 2017
Services commerciaux et publics
N/A
Résidentiel
N/A
Industriel
N/A
Consommation d'électricité par habitant (kWh/personne)
2016
1284.58
SSA average (2016)
365.6
Potentiel des ressources photovoltaïques (plage de sortie, kWh/kWp)
3.9 - 4.6
Potentiel des ressources éoliennes (plage de vitesse du vent, mètre par seconde)
2.5 - 9.0
Potentiel des ressources (petite centrale hydroélectrique) MW
36.5
Mélange d'électricité par source (% de la capacité installée)
Petite centrale hydroélectrique (13.60 %)
Autres (86.40 %)
Prix du diesel par litre (EUROS)
Pertes techniques T&D (% de la production)
2018
11.42%
Subventions pour l'électricité et les produits pétroliers (% du PIB)
Subventions à l'électricité, 2017
No data
N/A
Subventions aux produits pétroliers, 2017
1.35%
€52,864,200.00
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