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Full meaning Union africaine Communauté des États sahélo-sahariens Marché commun de l'Afrique orientale et australe Communauté économique des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest Les investissements directs étrangers Produit intérieur brut Tarifs par tranches Fonds monétaire international Petits producteurs d'énergie indépendants Kilowatt Kilowatt heure Gaz de pétrole liquide Megawatt Pay as you go Contrat d'achat d'électricité Partenariats public-privé Standard and Poors Global Ratings Afrique subsaharienne Transmission et distribution Time of use Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine United Nations Industrial Development Organization Taxe Sur La Valeur Ajoutee Indicateurs réglementaires de la Banque mondiale pour l'énergie durable Projection pour 2030 2017/2018 année de référence La moyenne des pays d'Afrique sub-saharienne inclut l'Afrique du Sud. Calcul pour les données de moyenne et de pays de l'Afrique sub-saharienne : Consommation totale (2016) / population totale (2016). Moyenne de l’Afrique subsaharienne: 18% Cela comprend les subventions au diesel, au kérosène et à l'essence. Les taux et les tarifs ont été convertis avec le taux de change moyen en euros en avril 2020. Taux de change disponibles depuis ec.europa.eu Les taux et les tarifs ont été convertis avec le taux de change moyen en euros en avril 2020. Taux de change disponibles depuis ec.europa.eu Les taux et les tarifs ont été convertis avec le taux de change moyen en euros en avril 2020. Taux de change disponibles depuis ec.europa.eu

Secteur de l'énergie

Aperçu de l'investissement
Zambia had nearly 3,000 MW of installed capacity in 2018, most of which is generated from hydro. Peak electricity demand in the same year amounted to about 650 MW less than that. Available capacity, however, has been decreasing since 2019 and in 2020 resulted in a supply deficit of more than 810 MW.

Access to electricity is generally poor and vastly disparate between rural and urban settings, with electrification rates below 5% and 80% respectively. Despite more than 2 million households lacking electricity access and the aforementioned supply deficit, per capita consumption is nearly twice the average in sub-Saharan Africa. Consumption is concentrated in industrial sectors, accounting for more than half of total electricity consumed.

Peak electricity demand is set to increase to about 4,247 MW by 2025, up from 2,194 MW in 2018. The national electrification target is 66% of the population by 2030 while installed capacity is expected to double from its 2018 figures to around 6,000 MW.

The country’s energy regulation has allowed private participation for more than two decades, yet IPPs have not been able to gain significant traction or mass adoption. The IPP landscape is concentrated to a handful of companies that generate energy from large hydro and thermal sources and sell to the grid. Meanwhile some small scale solar and hydro companies are supplying power to rural areas.

Two large-scale solar projects are set to begin construction in 2020 following the signing of a memorandum of understanding with the Zambian government. Adding a combined 200 MW to the national grid, a 135 MW facility is planned for northern Zambia and a 65 MW facility for the country’s copperbelt.

Structure

Zambia’s energy regulation was opened up to greater private investment in 1995, followed by the establishment of a regulator in 1997. Since then, IPPs have been allowed to feed into the grid yet low electricity tariffs and constrained utility finances have hampered significant private entrants into the market.

The Government of Zambia aims to enable and encourage private sector participation to improve infrastructure development in the energy sector. Practically however, the vast majority of electricity supply is operated by the vertically integrated state-owned utility, while some pockets of private sector activity occurs across generation, transmission and distribution market segments.

Several IPPs are already operating in Zambia, mostly generating and on-selling electricity to the grid. One exception is the Copperbelt Energy Corporation (CEC) which purchases energy and supplies it to the mines. Most companies are privately owned while others are partially or wholly owned by the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO), the state-owned utility.

A new national electrification strategy is currently under development and is expected to provide clear direction on the future development and management of infrastructure, as well as mix between on- and off-grid solutions.
Generation:

The Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO), the state-owned utility, had an installed capacity that covered 74% of total capacity by July 2019, followed by IPPs with 22% and captive power plants with 4%.

Transmission:

ZESCO is the main transmission operator, while the Copperbelt Energy Corporation operates transmission grids in the Copperbelt region.

Distribution:

ZESCO is the main operator of distribution grids, while the Copperbelt Energy Corporation operates distribution grids in the Copperbelt region. The Northwest Energy Corporation also operates distribution grids.
The Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO), established in 1970, is the national electricity utility, wholly state-owned through the Industrial Development Corporation.

The Rural Electrification Authority (REA) is responsible for rural electrification, including deployment of the Rural Electrification Fund and development and implementation of the Rural Electrification Master Plan (REMP).

The Copperbelt Energy Corporation is a privately owned vertically integrated utility that generates, transmits and distributes electricity to mines in the Copperbelt region.
The Ministry of Energy (MOE) is responsible for the formulation and implementation of energy policy, compiling inventories of energy resources, detailing patterns of generation, distribution, consumption, and pricing of energy. They are also tasked with maintaining an energy information system used for planning, forecasting and policy analysis. The ministry is responsible for the monitoring and implementation of the rural electrification programme, promoting the development and wide utilisation of renewable sources of energy, promoting the efficient management of energy, monitoring and evaluating energy programmes and coordinating regional energy programmes.

The Office for Promoting Private Power Investment (OPPPI) is a unit in the Ministry of Energy with the task of promoting private sector involvement in generation and transmission.
The Energy Regulation Board (ERB) is the national energy regulator. The ERB is inter alia responsible for ensuring a reasonable return on investment for operators/utilities, quality service at affordable prices to the consumer, licencing of operators, proposing tariffs and monitoring competition.
Zambia Development Agency (ZDA) is an agency responsible for fostering the country’s economic growth and development by promoting trade and investment. The ZDA is expected to be a one-stop-shop for all investors including those in the energy sector.

The Zambezi River Authority (ZRA), co-owned by Zambia and Zimbabwe, is an institution that is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the Kariba Dam complex as well as the investigation and development of new hydro sites on the Zambezi River.

The Zambia Environmental Management Agency (ZEMA) is the environmental regulator and coordinating authority.

The North Western Energy Corporation is a private company licenced to distribute electricity.

Ndola Energy Company is a private company licensed to generate electricity.

The Ithezi-Thezi Power Company is a 50% state-owned generating company.

Kariba North Bank Extension, is a state-owned generating company.

Acteurs clés

Carte de localisation de réseaux
Transmission (OSIM)
Distribution (prévue)
Objectifs en matière d'électricité
Utilitaire/distributeur
The Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO), established in 1970, is the national electricity utility, wholly state-owned through the Industrial Development Corporation.

The Rural Electrification Authority (REA) is responsible for rural electrification, including deployment of the Rural Electrification Fund and development and implementation of the Rural Electrification Master Plan (REMP).

The Copperbelt Energy Corporation is a privately owned vertically integrated utility that generates, transmits and distributes electricity to mines in the Copperbelt region.
Ministère (ministères)
The Ministry of Energy (MOE) is responsible for the formulation and implementation of energy policy, compiling inventories of energy resources, detailing patterns of generation, distribution, consumption, and pricing of energy. They are also tasked with maintaining an energy information system used for planning, forecasting and policy analysis. The ministry is responsible for the monitoring and implementation of the rural electrification programme, promoting the development and wide utilisation of renewable sources of energy, promoting the efficient management of energy, monitoring and evaluating energy programmes and coordinating regional energy programmes.

The Office for Promoting Private Power Investment (OPPPI) is a unit in the Ministry of Energy with the task of promoting private sector involvement in generation and transmission.
Régulateur
The Energy Regulation Board (ERB) is the national energy regulator. The ERB is inter alia responsible for ensuring a reasonable return on investment for operators/utilities, quality service at affordable prices to the consumer, licencing of operators, proposing tariffs and monitoring competition.
Autres
Zambia Development Agency (ZDA) is an agency responsible for fostering the country’s economic growth and development by promoting trade and investment. The ZDA is expected to be a one-stop-shop for all investors including those in the energy sector.

The Zambezi River Authority (ZRA), co-owned by Zambia and Zimbabwe, is an institution that is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the Kariba Dam complex as well as the investigation and development of new hydro sites on the Zambezi River.

The Zambia Environmental Management Agency (ZEMA) is the environmental regulator and coordinating authority.

The North Western Energy Corporation is a private company licenced to distribute electricity.

Ndola Energy Company is a private company licensed to generate electricity.

The Ithezi-Thezi Power Company is a 50% state-owned generating company.

Kariba North Bank Extension, is a state-owned generating company.

Tarifs

Composants tarifaires
Basse tension
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):
€0.05
Fixed Charge (€/month):
Social (water pumping, street lighting, etc): €12.72
TOU customers (16-300kVA): €26.16
TOU customers (301-2000kVA): €52.32
TOU customers (2001-7500 kVA): €109.59
TOU customers (7500-10,000kVA): €219.19
Demand Charge (€/kVA/month):
TOU customers (16-300kVA) Standard: €2.67
TOU customers (16-300kVA) Peak: €3.34
TOU customers (16-300kVA) Off-peak: €1.34
TOU customers (301-2000kVA) standard: €5.00
TOU customers (301-2000kVA) peak: €6.25
TOU customers (301-2000kVA) offpeak: €2.50
TOU customers (2001-7500 kVA) standard: €7.89
TOU customers (2001-7500 kVA) peak: €9.86
TOU customers (2001-7500 kVA) offpeak: €3.95
TOU customers (7500-10,000kVA) standard: €7.94
TOU customers (7500-10,000kVA) peak: €9.92
TOU customers (7500-10,000kVA) offpeak: €3.97
Government Excise Duty (%):
3% (Included in consumption charges, fixed charges and demand charges)
VAT (%):
16% (Included in consumption charges, fixed charges and demand charges)
Tension moyenne
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):
€0.04
Demand Charge (€/kVA/month):
€4.00
Government Excise Duty (%):
3% (Included in consumption charge and demand charge)
VAT (%):
16% (Included in consumption charge and demand charge)
Haute tension
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):





€0.04
Demand Charge (€/kVA/month):
€4.00
Government Excise Duty (%):
3% (Included in consumption charge and demand charge)
VAT (%):
16% (Included in consumption charge and demand charge)
Tarif de détail moyen par catégorie de consommation
Basse tension (c€/kWh)
Average LV
5.1
Residential (average of IBTs)\n
6.8
Commercial (average of IBTs)
9.1
Social (streetlighting, water pumping, etc)
7.4
TOU customers (16-300kVA; average of standard, peak and offpeak)\n
3.8
TOU (301-2000kVA; average of standard, peak and off peak tariffs)\n
3.3
TOU (2001-7500kVA; average of standard, peak and off peak tariffs)\n
2.7
TOU (7501-10,000kVA; average of standard, peak and off peak tariffs)
2.2
Tension moyenne (€c/kWh)
Average MV
3.6
Bulk Distributors
3.6
Haute tension (c€/kWh)
Average HV
3.6
Bulk Distributors
3.6
Le tarif de détail de l'électricité fait-il l'objet d'un réexamen périodique?
No
The process of tariff adjustment is initiated by the Utility which submits an application to the Energy Regulation Board (ERB) six months before the commencement of the first year the new tariff is due to be initiated. Once accepted there is a process of public consultation.

Normes de qualité

The Zambia Bureau of Standards (ZABS) is the national agency with the responsibility to ensure compliance to standards. ZABS also develops standards for the energy sector in partnership with the Energy Regulation Board (ERB). ZABS Document and Information Centre (DIC) membership gives members access to the full catalogue of Zambian quality standards. Relevant standards include ZS387 (Power Quality and Reliability), ZS746 (Off-Grid and Rural Grid Extension System Construction and Safety), ZS397 (Quality of Consumer Service), ZS647 (Code of Practice for Electricity Metering) and ZS403 (Batteries for use in Photovoltaic Systems). As of 2017, importers of solar equipment must present ZABS with a certification of product quality. At the time of writing, there were no standards to ensure quality of improved cookstoves.

Explorer les données

Taux d'électrification
% Taux d'électrification national
2018
% Taux d'électrification rural
2018
% Taux d'électrification urbain
2018
Puissance installée totale (MW)
2030
6,000
2018
2,948.85
Demande de pointe (MW)
2025
4247
2018
2194
Electricity consumption by sector (MWh), 2017
Services commerciaux et publics
825.73
Résidentiel
4140.28
Industriel
6838.44
Consommation d'électricité par habitant (kWh/personne)
2016
674.67
SSA average (2016)
365.6
Potentiel des ressources photovoltaïques (plage de sortie, kWh/kWp)
4.1 - 4.7
Potentiel des ressources éoliennes (plage de vitesse du vent, mètre par seconde)
2.5 - 9.0
Potentiel des ressources (petite centrale hydroélectrique) MW
301.7
Mélange d'électricité par source (% de la capacité installée)
Solaire (1.19 %)
Petite centrale hydroélectrique (3.74 %)
Autres (95.07 %)
Prix du diesel par litre (EUROS)
Pertes techniques T&D (% de la production)
2018
19.00%
Subventions pour l'électricité et les produits pétroliers (% du PIB)
Subventions à l'électricité, 2017
8.94%
€2,026,461,000.00
Subventions aux produits pétroliers, 2017
1.12%
€255,510,300.00
Méthodologie
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