The Country Briefs’ data was collated from a wide range of new and relevant sources, prioritising credible and comparable references. Where possible or where there was any ambiguity, data was cross-referenced across multiple sources. All data is referenced to allow the user to dig deeper into the primary documentation. In the few cases where any uncertainty remains, for example when collating lists of all known projects in a particular market segment at the time of writing, this has been clearly indicated to the user.
In a number of cases, for example when presenting data on mobile subscriptions, discretion was used to select what we believe to be the most valuable indicator for the data set in question. This along with all the data collection methodologies are detailed alongside the indicators. In the examples where any calculation or data analysis has been carried out, for example in the conversion of currencies, the process has been detailed and any assumptions flagged.
Below is a list of clarifications pertaining to i) certain indicators’ meaning as well as ii) data collection and iii) data analysis methods of other indicators.
% population with access to internet
This includes all mobile internet devices as well as fixed line internet access.
Median lead time to import
The median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from port of discharge to arrival at the consignee. This indicator considers all types of entry ports and the unit is days. Data is from 2018, unless specified otherwise.
Aggregated Logistics Performance Index ranking
The aggregated Logistics Performance Index (LPI) is an index that ranks 167 countries on the efficiency of logistics. The scores presented here are averages across the 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018 LPI editions. The rankings are based on the following:
- The efficiency of customs and border management clearance;
- The quality of trade and transport infrastructure;
- The ease of arranging competitively priced shipments;
- The competence and quality of logistics services—trucking, forwarding, and customs brokerage;
- The ability to track and trace consignments;
- The frequency with which shipments reach consignees within scheduled or expected delivery times.
T&D technical losses (% of generation)
This indicator only reports technical losses. Commercial losses are thus excluded. Technical losses for both transmission and distribution infrastructure are considered.
Total volume of clean energy investment
Only disclosed asset finance deals above 1.5 MW are considered in the data. Euro values were converted from the US dollar with average exchange rates across Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 of the respective years.
% foreign investment in clean energy
Definition derived from Climatescope (http://global-climatescope.org/): This indicator presents the disclosed share of foreign investment in the clean energy sector. In other words, of total investment in clean energy (local and foreign), the indicator provides the amount of foreign investment in clean energy. This includes all renewable energy sources (solar, wind, small hydro, geothermal and biomass and waste), and excludes large hydro (above 50 MW) and nuclear. Only disclosed asset finance deals above 1.5 MW are considered in the data. Euro values were converted from the US dollar with average exchange rates across Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 of the respective years.
% population with access to internet
This includes all mobile internet devices as well as fixed line internet access.
Solar home system/pico-solar overview
Country-specific sales data cited in the SHS/pico-solar market overviews were collected from the GOGLA/Lighting Global bi-annual sales data reports. Annual figures were calculated by adding the six month sales numbers together for 2018 and 2019. The share of PAYGO sales was calculated by dividing the total number of products sold on a PAYGO basis into the total number of sales of all products. This was also done for both 2018 and 2019. Bi-annual sales data reports are available at the following links:
- July-December 2019
- January-June 2019
- July-December 2018
- January-June 2018
Data collection methodologies
Solar PV resource potential (output range, kWh/ kWp)
Data was collected from the Global Solar Atlas. This GIS based source provides data for the amount of electrical energy (kWh) output expected in each location from a solar PV panel with a given output rating (kWp). The resolution of this data is relatively high and as such there can be significant variation across a country. A range for the whole country is used which can only provide an indicative point of reference.
Wind resource potential (Wind speed range, metre per second)
Data was collected from the Global Wind Atlas. This GIS based source provides data for wind speed in meters per second. The resolution of this data is relatively high and as such there can be significant variation across a country. A range for the whole country is used which can only provide an indicative point of reference.
The Electrified Minigrid Localities database by Carbon Trust and the African Association for Rural Electrification was used as a foundational source for data collection on operational minigrids. This data was cross-referenced with two sources: The ECOWAS Observatory for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECOWREX) minigrid database (ECOWAS countries only) and the African Energy Live Data free access database. Finally, where needed, data was cross-referenced with online news articles and published reports. Links to relevant articles and reports are provided in each country brief. This information is time-sensitive and valid at the time of writing (May 2020).
Small IPP overview
The African Energy Live Data free access database was used as a foundational source for data collection on planned, under construction and operational small IPP projects. Data was cross-referenced with online news articles and published reports. Links to relevant articles and reports are provided in each country brief.
Captive power overview
The African Energy Live Data free access database was used as a foundational source for data collection on planned, under construction and operational captive power projects. Data was cross-referenced with online news articles and published reports. Links to relevant articles and reports are provided in each country brief.
Data analysis methodologies
% penetration of mobile cellular subscriptions
This percentage is calculated from the number of mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 adults. Occasionally a single user will have more than one mobile subscription and so it is possible for this value to exceed 100%.
% penetration of mobile money
This percentage is calculated from the number of mobile money accounts per 1000 adults. Occasionally a single user will have more than one mobile money account and so it is possible for this value to exceed 100%.
Per capita electricity consumption (kWh/person) vs SSA average
Per capita electricity consumption was calculated by dividing total electricity consumption in 2016 by total population in 2016. Values were calculated for all countries as well as SSA at large. The SSA average includes South Africa.
Electricity consumption by sector (MWh)
Values were converted from kilotonne of oil equivalent (ktoe) to megawatt hours (MWh). Ktoe values were multiplied by 11.63.
Estimated total number of households not electrified (million)
Values were calculated by dividing the total unelectrified population by the average household size. Total unelectrified population was calculated by applying the percentage of people without access to the total population in 2018. Household size data was provided by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA).
Tariff components were determined from power utility electricity tariff tables. Links to tariff tables are provided in each country brief. Values of the rates and tariffs were converted with the average exchange rate between the local currency and the Euro in April 2020. Exchange rates are available at https://ec.europa.eu/budget/graphs/inforeuro.html.The “consumption charge” is the average of customer categories, for example, residential, commercial and industrial. A detailed breakdown of the consumption charge is provided at the “average retail tariff by consumption category” indicator.
Average retail tariff by consumption category
The average low voltage, medium voltage and high voltage tariffs were calculated from the respective customer categories in each voltage category. Occasionally, the customer categories themselves had to be calculated as averages across sub-categories. These sub-categories are most prevalent in the residential and commercial customer categories and typically take the form of inclining block tariffs (IBTs). Tariffs were converted with the average exchange rate between the local currency and the Euro in April 2020. Exchange rates are available at https://ec.europa.eu/budget/graphs/inforeuro.html.
Petroleum product subsidies
Petroleum subsidies estimates include gasoline/petrol, diesel and kerosene subsidies. The subsidy value as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) was calculated by dividing the subsidy amount from 2017 by total GDP of the same year. The amount was converted to Euro from the US dollar with the average exchange rate across Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 of 2017.
For the purpose of this assignment, clean energy includes all renewable energy sources (solar, wind, small hydro, geothermal and biomass and waste), and excludes large hydro (above 50 MW) and nuclear.
General government debt-to-GDP ratio measures the gross debt of the general government as a percentage of GDP. Debt is calculated as the sum of the following liability categories (as applicable): currency and deposits; debt securities, loans; insurance, pensions and standardised guarantee schemes, and other accounts payable.
Economic liberalisation is the lessening of government regulations and restrictions in an economy in exchange for greater participation by private entities.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment from a party in one country into a business or corporation in another country with the intention of establishing a lasting interest.
Independent Power Producer (IPP)
An IPP refers to a generator of electricity that is not a public utility but which makes electricity available for sale to utilities. IPPs generate electricity for the sole purpose of selling to the utility via a grid connection, subject to a power purchase agreement (PPA).
Installed and Operational Capacity
Installed capacity refers to the peak power generation capacity of a power plant, or series of power plants. The operating capacity is the total amount of electrical generation capacity operating at any one time.
The use of a mobile phone and cellular subscription to transfer funds between banks or accounts and deposit or withdraw funds.
Peak demand is the maximum power demand in a given time frame.
Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)
A PPA is a reciprocal financial relationship, in the form of a contract, between an electricity generator, the seller, and a dedicated purchaser of the electricity, the buyer. PPAs typically outline commercial terms and other arrangements between the parties, and can vary widely in structure and function.
Public Private Partnership (PPP)
A long-term contract between a private party and a government entity, for providing a public asset or service, in which the private party bears significant risk and management responsibility.
Real GDP Growth
The real economic growth, or real GDP growth rate, measures economic growth as it relates to the GDP from one period to another, adjusted for inflation, and expressed in real terms as opposed to nominal terms. The real economic growth rate considers inflation in its measurement of economic growth, unlike the nominal GDP growth rate, which does not.
Throughout the country briefs, different installed capacity thresholds are used to describe small hydro, as a result of diverse sources. The small hydro resource potential indicator includes all hydro below 10 megawatt. The total volume of clean energy investment and percentage of foreign investment in clean energy considers hydro below 50 megawatt, among other generation sources.
Small independent power producer (IPP)
Throughout the Country Briefs, small IPP is defined as any grid-tied system below 10 MW that operates on a power purchase agreement (PPA), with the exclusive goal of feeding energy into the grid (no self-consumption).
A distributed energy system that generates electricity at a centralised location from one or a combination of energy sources and distributes to end-customers typically through a low-voltage grid. Minigrids can be isolated or interconnected with the main grid.
Solar home systems (SHSs)
Off-grid solar products with peak capacities between 11 Wp and 350 Wp, powering lights and other small DC appliances such as fans and televisions. They include battery storage for electricity supply outside periods of generation.
Off-grid solar products with peak capacity below 11 Wp, offering basic energy services such as lighting and cellphone charging. They include battery storage for electricity supply outside periods of generation.
Captive power systems are defined as being ‘behind the meter’ systems whose primary purpose is self consumption. These systems can be off-grid or grid-tied. If grid tied, surplus energy is fed into the grid, typically on a feed-in-tariff (FiT) basis, as opposed to a PPA.
For the purposes of this assignment, both clean and improved cookstoves are considered. Clean cooking includes cooking with electricity, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), biogas, ethanol, solar and the best performing biomass stoves (Tier 3 to 5 on the ISO multi-tier framework). Improved cooking refers to cooking with biomass cookstoves that have improved efficiency as compared to traditional biomass cookstoves. Improved cookstoves are regarded as Tier 2 cookstoves.