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Full meaning African Union Community of Sahel–Saharan States Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Economic Community of West African States Investimento direto estrangeiro Produto interno bruto Inclining block tariff(s) International Monetary Fund Independent power producer Kilowatt Kilowatt hour Gás de petróleo líquido Megawatt Pay as you go Power purchase agreement Private public partnership Standard and Poors Global Ratings Sub-Saharan Africa Transmissão e Distribuição Time of use West African Economic and Monetary Union United Nations Industrial Development Organization Value added tax World Bank Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy Um sistema de energia distribuída que produz electricidade num local centralizado a partir de uma ou de uma combinação de fontes de energia distribuida aos clientes finais normalmente através de uma rede de baixa tensão. As mini-redes podem ser isoladas ou interligadas com a rede principal. Em todos os Country Briefs, um pequeno PPI é definido como qualquer sistema ligado à rede inferior a 10 MW que funcione com base num acordo de compra de energia (PPA), com o único objectivo de alimentar a rede com energia (sem autoconsumo). SHS são produtos solares fora da rede com capacidades de pico geralmente entre 11 Wp e 350 Wp, que alimentam luzes e outros pequenos aparelhos DC, tais como ventiladores e televisores, que incluem armazenamento de baterias para fornecimento de electricidade fora dos períodos de produção. Os sistemas solares Pico são tipicamente inferiores a 11 Wp, oferecendo serviços básicos de energia, tais como iluminação e carregamento de telemóveis. Os sistemas de energia cativa são definidos como sendo sistemas "atrás do contador", cujo objectivo principal é o autoconsumo. Estes sistemas podem estar fora da rede ou ligados à rede. Para efeitos dos Country Briefs, isto inclui fogões de "cozinha limpa", fogões de cozinha melhorados, biogás e sistemas de cozinha a gás de petróleo liquefeito (GPL).

Pequenos produtores independentes de energia

Visão geral
Despite only one operational small IPP plant, the Eswatini government is supportive of attracting private participation in electricity generation in the form of IPPs. The Electricity Act of 2007 demonstrates this, as well as the IPP Policy.

Buckswood 100 kW solar in Siteki, commissioned in March 2015, is the only operational small IPP project. The plant is operated and owned by Wundersight. The company is also developing the Wunder Solar 850 kW solar in Siteki. Construction started in 2017 but little is known about its progress. The Lavumisa 10 MW solar plant is currently under construction by Consolidated Infrastructure Group, but the project is owned by EEC. Operations are scheduled to commence in August 2020. Finally, planning on the Lower Maguduza small IPP hydro project commenced in 2017. The project is envisaged to be approximately 10 MW, with completion scheduled for 2021.
Regulamentos
The Electricity Act of 2007 was promulgated to regulate generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. It requires all companies involved in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity to apply for licence from ESERA. Licence holders need to comply with all relevant by-laws and other ESERA procedures and quality standards. The Act further stipulates that tariffs are regulated, and allows licencees to recover full costs and a reasonable return on capital invested. Off-grid systems, mini-grids and projects selling less than 1 GWh per year are exempt from applying for a licence.
The Electricity licencing Bylaws (2016) exempts the following systems from requiring a licence: Self-generators of less than 100 kW, off-grid systems and mini-grids. This is a bylaw and not an amendment act, which would deem these provisions to be additive instead of replacement of provisions in the 2007 act.
The Grid Connection Code for Renewable Power Plants Connected to the Electricity Transmission System or the Distribution System (2014) specifies minimum technical requirements for renewable energy plants wishing to connect to the grid. It applies to PV, CSP, small hydro, landfill gas, biomass, biogas and wind technologies.
The Metering Code (2014) stipulates requirements relating to meter installation, metering data and accuracy of the equipment.

Mini-redes

Visão geral
As of end 2020, Eswatini did not have any installed or operational mini-grids (public or private). The government has, however, exempted mini-grids from having to apply for generation and distribution licences as per the Electricity Act and the licensing bylaws. The government's policy stance is also favourable towards mini-grids - the IPP Policy states that mini-grids in areas least likely to be grid connected ought to be prioritised. Eswatini has also committed to reducing carbon dioxide emissions through a variety of approaches including the implementation of “small scale, decentralised renewable energy technologies to improve energy access in rural areas.”
Regulamentos
The Electricity Act of 2007 was promulgated to regulate generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. It requires all companies involved in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity to apply for licence from ESERA. Licence holders need to comply with all relevant by-laws and other ESERA procedures and quality standards. The Act further stipulates that tariffs are regulated, and allows licencees to recover full costs and a reasonable return on capital invested. Off-grid systems, mini-grids and projects selling less than 1 GWh per year are exempt from applying for a licence.
The Electricity licencing Bylaws (2016) exempt the following systems from requiring a licence: Self-generators of less than 100 kW, off-grid systems and mini-grids. This is a bylaw and not an amendment act, which would deem these provisions to be additive instead of replacement of provisions in the 2007 Act.
The Grid Connection Code for Renewable Power Plants Connected to the Electricity Transmission System or the Distribution System (2014) specifies minimum technical requirements for renewable energy plants wishing to connect to the grid. It applies to PV, CSP, small hydro, landfill gas, biomass, biogas and wind technologies.
The Metering Code (2014) stipulates requirements relating to meter installation, metering data and accuracy of the equipment.

SHS\Pico Solar

Visão geral
The potential of small scale off-grid solar in Eswatini remains untapped, with no GOGLA or Lighting Global affiliated sales recorded in 2018 or 2019. The National Energy Policy of Eswatini was recently reviewed and the implementation strategy updated before commencing in January 2018. They prioritise the use of solar home systems and other off-grid generation, particularly for rural areas where grid extension is too expensive. To this end, the Government of Eswatini is evaluating the participation of the private sector to implement many off-grid electrification interventions.
Regulamentos
The Electricity Act of 2007 was promulgated to regulate generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. It requires all companies involved in generation, transmission and distribution of electricity to apply for a licence from ESERA. Licence holders need to comply with all relevant by-laws and other ESERA procedures and quality standards. The Act further stipulates that tariffs are regulated, and allows licencees to recover full costs and a reasonable return on capital invested. Off-grid systems, mini-grids and projects selling less than 1 GWh per year are exempt from applying for a licence.
The Electricity licencing Bylaws (2016) exempt the following systems from requiring a licence: Self-generators of less than 100 kW, off-grid systems and mini-grids. This is a bylaw and not an amendment act, which would deem these provisions to be additive instead of replacement of provisions in the 2007 Act.

Energia cativa

Visão geral
Eswatini has a handful of solar, wind and biomass captive power projects currently being planned or already operating in the country. Sugar millers account for the vast majority of captive power plants, which use mostly bagasse as fuel for co-generation. These companies sell their excess energy to the grid, and may soon be allowed to sell directly to large customers.

Royal Eswatini Sugar Corporation operates three biomass plants totalling 65.5 MW installed capacity while Ubombo Sugar Limited has its own 1 MW hydro plant and 40 MW biomass plant. Swaziland Plantations operates a seasonal 800 kW hydro plant close to Piggs Peak.

In addition to agroforestry, a 400kW solar-biomass hybrid system is under development by Wundersight at the Good Shepherd hospital in Siteki. Ecolibri has also implemented two 118 kW wind-solar hybrid systems at Tikhuba School in Siteki and at Amadi University in Mbabane respectively. Watts Up Solar also provides captive power solutions in the country.

The IPP Policy proposed that captive power projects are included in the overall energy planning process, while the country’s 2018 energy master plan explicitly outlines captive biomass projects in their base case scenario. The electricity licensing bylaws have also exempted captive power projects below 100 kW from having to apply for a generation license. The government targets the installation of 13,000 residential solar systems of 1.5 kW each and 15,000 institutional solar systems of 50 kW each in rural areas between 2019 and 2024
Regulamentos
The Electricity Act of 2007 was promulgated to regulate generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. It requires all companies involved in generation, transmission and distribution of electricity to apply for a licence from ESERA. Licence holders need to comply with all relevant by-laws and other ESERA procedures and quality standards. The Act further stipulates that tariffs are regulated, and allows licencees to recover full costs and a reasonable return on capital invested. Off-grid systems, mini-grids and projects selling less than 1 GWh per year are exempt from applying for a licence.
The Electricity licencing Bylaws (2016) exempts the following systems from requiring a licence: Self-generators of less than 100 kW, off-grid systems and mini-grids. This is a bylaw and not an amendment Act, which would deem these provisions to be additive instead of replacement of provisions in the 2007 Act.
The Grid Connection Code for Renewable Power Plants Connected to the Electricity Transmission System or the Distribution System (2014) specifies minimum technical requirements for renewable energy plants wishing to connect to the grid. It applies to PV, CSP, small hydro, landfill gas, biomass, biogas and wind technologies.
The Metering Code (2014) stipulates requirements relating to meter installation, metering data and accuracy of the equipment.

Cozinhar limpo

Visão geral
Eswatini has made good progress in increasing clean cooking fuels in urban areas, with only 14% of the urban population relying on solid fuels for cooking purposes. However, the penetration of clean cooking solutions in rural areas is still low with 77% of the population using solid fuels for cooking. This means that about 50% of the entire population has access to clean cooking solutions. The primary cooking fuel, used by 72% of the population, is wood, followed by liquid petroleum gas (LPG) at 11% of the population. New Dawn Engineering and Watts Up Solar are examples of companies that sell improved cooking solutions.

In 2018, the government introduced the Kingdom of Eswatini Energy Master Plan 2034 which has set the target of increasing the portion of the population relying on a clean and sustainable cooking alternative to increase to 75%. It will achieve this through policy-based interventions such as rebate programmes to encourage households to use clean cookstoves.
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