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Full meaning African Union Community of Sahel–Saharan States Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Economic Community of West African States Investimento direto estrangeiro Produto interno bruto Inclining block tariff(s) International Monetary Fund Independent power producer Kilowatt Kilowatt hour Gás de petróleo líquido Megawatt Pay as you go Power purchase agreement Private public partnership Standard and Poors Global Ratings Sub-Saharan Africa Transmissão e Distribuição Time of use West African Economic and Monetary Union United Nations Industrial Development Organization Value added tax World Bank Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy Projecção para 2030 2017/2018 ano do relatório A média SSA inclui a África do Sul. Cálculo para a média da ASS e dados do país: Consumo total (2016) / população total (2016). Média Àfrica subsariana : 18% Isto inclui os subsídios ao gasóleo, querosene e gasolina. As taxas e tarifas foram convertidas com a taxa de câmbio média para o Euro em Abril de 2020. Taxas de câmbio disponíveis em ec.europa.eu As taxas e tarifas foram convertidas com a taxa de câmbio média para o Euro em Abril de 2020. Taxas de câmbio disponíveis em ec.europa.eu As taxas e tarifas foram convertidas com a taxa de câmbio média para o Euro em Abril de 2020. Taxas de câmbio disponíveis em ec.europa.eu

Sector energético

Visão Geral do Investimento
Zambia had nearly 3,000 MW of installed capacity in 2018, most of which is generated from hydro. Peak electricity demand in the same year amounted to about 650 MW less than that. Available capacity, however, has been decreasing since 2019 and in 2020 resulted in a supply deficit of more than 810 MW.

Access to electricity is generally poor and vastly disparate between rural and urban settings, with electrification rates below 5% and 80% respectively. Despite more than 2 million households lacking electricity access and the aforementioned supply deficit, per capita consumption is nearly twice the average in sub-Saharan Africa. Consumption is concentrated in industrial sectors, accounting for more than half of total electricity consumed.

Peak electricity demand is set to increase to about 4,247 MW by 2025, up from 2,194 MW in 2018. The national electrification target is 66% of the population by 2030 while installed capacity is expected to double from its 2018 figures to around 6,000 MW.

The country’s energy regulation has allowed private participation for more than two decades, yet IPPs have not been able to gain significant traction or mass adoption. The IPP landscape is concentrated to a handful of companies that generate energy from large hydro and thermal sources and sell to the grid. Meanwhile some small scale solar and hydro companies are supplying power to rural areas.

Two large-scale solar projects are set to begin construction in 2020 following the signing of a memorandum of understanding with the Zambian government. Adding a combined 200 MW to the national grid, a 135 MW facility is planned for northern Zambia and a 65 MW facility for the country’s copperbelt.

Estrutura

Zambia’s energy regulation was opened up to greater private investment in 1995, followed by the establishment of a regulator in 1997. Since then, IPPs have been allowed to feed into the grid yet low electricity tariffs and constrained utility finances have hampered significant private entrants into the market.

The Government of Zambia aims to enable and encourage private sector participation to improve infrastructure development in the energy sector. Practically however, the vast majority of electricity supply is operated by the vertically integrated state-owned utility, while some pockets of private sector activity occurs across generation, transmission and distribution market segments.

Several IPPs are already operating in Zambia, mostly generating and on-selling electricity to the grid. One exception is the Copperbelt Energy Corporation (CEC) which purchases energy and supplies it to the mines. Most companies are privately owned while others are partially or wholly owned by the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO), the state-owned utility.

A new national electrification strategy is currently under development and is expected to provide clear direction on the future development and management of infrastructure, as well as mix between on- and off-grid solutions.
Generation:

The Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO), the state-owned utility, had an installed capacity that covered 74% of total capacity by July 2019, followed by IPPs with 22% and captive power plants with 4%.

Transmission:

ZESCO is the main transmission operator, while the Copperbelt Energy Corporation operates transmission grids in the Copperbelt region.

Distribution:

ZESCO is the main operator of distribution grids, while the Copperbelt Energy Corporation operates distribution grids in the Copperbelt region. The Northwest Energy Corporation also operates distribution grids.
The Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO), established in 1970, is the national electricity utility, wholly state-owned through the Industrial Development Corporation.

The Rural Electrification Authority (REA) is responsible for rural electrification, including deployment of the Rural Electrification Fund and development and implementation of the Rural Electrification Master Plan (REMP).

The Copperbelt Energy Corporation is a privately owned vertically integrated utility that generates, transmits and distributes electricity to mines in the Copperbelt region.
The Ministry of Energy (MOE) is responsible for the formulation and implementation of energy policy, compiling inventories of energy resources, detailing patterns of generation, distribution, consumption, and pricing of energy. They are also tasked with maintaining an energy information system used for planning, forecasting and policy analysis. The ministry is responsible for the monitoring and implementation of the rural electrification programme, promoting the development and wide utilisation of renewable sources of energy, promoting the efficient management of energy, monitoring and evaluating energy programmes and coordinating regional energy programmes.

The Office for Promoting Private Power Investment (OPPPI) is a unit in the Ministry of Energy with the task of promoting private sector involvement in generation and transmission.
The Energy Regulation Board (ERB) is the national energy regulator. The ERB is inter alia responsible for ensuring a reasonable return on investment for operators/utilities, quality service at affordable prices to the consumer, licencing of operators, proposing tariffs and monitoring competition.
Zambia Development Agency (ZDA) is an agency responsible for fostering the country’s economic growth and development by promoting trade and investment. The ZDA is expected to be a one-stop-shop for all investors including those in the energy sector.

The Zambezi River Authority (ZRA), co-owned by Zambia and Zimbabwe, is an institution that is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the Kariba Dam complex as well as the investigation and development of new hydro sites on the Zambezi River.

The Zambia Environmental Management Agency (ZEMA) is the environmental regulator and coordinating authority.

The North Western Energy Corporation is a private company licenced to distribute electricity.

Ndola Energy Company is a private company licensed to generate electricity.

The Ithezi-Thezi Power Company is a 50% state-owned generating company.

Kariba North Bank Extension, is a state-owned generating company.

Actores-chave

Mapa da rede de abastecimento
Transmissão (OMS)
Distribuição (prevista)
Objectivos de electrificação
Utilidade/distribuidor
The Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO), established in 1970, is the national electricity utility, wholly state-owned through the Industrial Development Corporation.

The Rural Electrification Authority (REA) is responsible for rural electrification, including deployment of the Rural Electrification Fund and development and implementation of the Rural Electrification Master Plan (REMP).

The Copperbelt Energy Corporation is a privately owned vertically integrated utility that generates, transmits and distributes electricity to mines in the Copperbelt region.
Ministério (Ministérios)
The Ministry of Energy (MOE) is responsible for the formulation and implementation of energy policy, compiling inventories of energy resources, detailing patterns of generation, distribution, consumption, and pricing of energy. They are also tasked with maintaining an energy information system used for planning, forecasting and policy analysis. The ministry is responsible for the monitoring and implementation of the rural electrification programme, promoting the development and wide utilisation of renewable sources of energy, promoting the efficient management of energy, monitoring and evaluating energy programmes and coordinating regional energy programmes.

The Office for Promoting Private Power Investment (OPPPI) is a unit in the Ministry of Energy with the task of promoting private sector involvement in generation and transmission.
Regulador
The Energy Regulation Board (ERB) is the national energy regulator. The ERB is inter alia responsible for ensuring a reasonable return on investment for operators/utilities, quality service at affordable prices to the consumer, licencing of operators, proposing tariffs and monitoring competition.
Outros
Zambia Development Agency (ZDA) is an agency responsible for fostering the country’s economic growth and development by promoting trade and investment. The ZDA is expected to be a one-stop-shop for all investors including those in the energy sector.

The Zambezi River Authority (ZRA), co-owned by Zambia and Zimbabwe, is an institution that is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the Kariba Dam complex as well as the investigation and development of new hydro sites on the Zambezi River.

The Zambia Environmental Management Agency (ZEMA) is the environmental regulator and coordinating authority.

The North Western Energy Corporation is a private company licenced to distribute electricity.

Ndola Energy Company is a private company licensed to generate electricity.

The Ithezi-Thezi Power Company is a 50% state-owned generating company.

Kariba North Bank Extension, is a state-owned generating company.

Tarifas

Componentes tarifários
Baixa voltagem
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):
€0.05
Fixed Charge (€/month):
Social (water pumping, street lighting, etc): €12.72
TOU customers (16-300kVA): €26.16
TOU customers (301-2000kVA): €52.32
TOU customers (2001-7500 kVA): €109.59
TOU customers (7500-10,000kVA): €219.19
Demand Charge (€/kVA/month):
TOU customers (16-300kVA) Standard: €2.67
TOU customers (16-300kVA) Peak: €3.34
TOU customers (16-300kVA) Off-peak: €1.34
TOU customers (301-2000kVA) standard: €5.00
TOU customers (301-2000kVA) peak: €6.25
TOU customers (301-2000kVA) offpeak: €2.50
TOU customers (2001-7500 kVA) standard: €7.89
TOU customers (2001-7500 kVA) peak: €9.86
TOU customers (2001-7500 kVA) offpeak: €3.95
TOU customers (7500-10,000kVA) standard: €7.94
TOU customers (7500-10,000kVA) peak: €9.92
TOU customers (7500-10,000kVA) offpeak: €3.97
Government Excise Duty (%):
3% (Included in consumption charges, fixed charges and demand charges)
VAT (%):
16% (Included in consumption charges, fixed charges and demand charges)
Tensão média
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):
€0.04
Demand Charge (€/kVA/month):
€4.00
Government Excise Duty (%):
3% (Included in consumption charge and demand charge)
VAT (%):
16% (Included in consumption charge and demand charge)
Alta tensão
Consumption Charge (€/ kWh):





€0.04
Demand Charge (€/kVA/month):
€4.00
Government Excise Duty (%):
3% (Included in consumption charge and demand charge)
VAT (%):
16% (Included in consumption charge and demand charge)
Tarifa média de venda a retalho por categoria de consumo
Baixa voltagem (c/ kWh)
Average LV
5.1
Residential (average of IBTs)\n
6.8
Commercial (average of IBTs)
9.1
Social (streetlighting, water pumping, etc)
7.4
TOU customers (16-300kVA; average of standard, peak and offpeak)\n
3.8
TOU (301-2000kVA; average of standard, peak and off peak tariffs)\n
3.3
TOU (2001-7500kVA; average of standard, peak and off peak tariffs)\n
2.7
TOU (7501-10,000kVA; average of standard, peak and off peak tariffs)
2.2
Média voltagem (c/ kWh)
Average MV
3.6
Bulk Distributors
3.6
Alta voltagem (c/ kWh)
Average HV
3.6
Bulk Distributors
3.6
A tarifa da electricidade a retalho está sujeita a revisão periódica?
No
The process of tariff adjustment is initiated by the Utility which submits an application to the Energy Regulation Board (ERB) six months before the commencement of the first year the new tariff is due to be initiated. Once accepted there is a process of public consultation.

Normas de qualidade

The Zambia Bureau of Standards (ZABS) is the national agency with the responsibility to ensure compliance to standards. ZABS also develops standards for the energy sector in partnership with the Energy Regulation Board (ERB). ZABS Document and Information Centre (DIC) membership gives members access to the full catalogue of Zambian quality standards. Relevant standards include ZS387 (Power Quality and Reliability), ZS746 (Off-Grid and Rural Grid Extension System Construction and Safety), ZS397 (Quality of Consumer Service), ZS647 (Code of Practice for Electricity Metering) and ZS403 (Batteries for use in Photovoltaic Systems). As of 2017, importers of solar equipment must present ZABS with a certification of product quality. At the time of writing, there were no standards to ensure quality of improved cookstoves.

Explorar os dados

Taxa de electrificação
% Taxa de electrificação nacional
2018
% Taxa de electrificação rural
2018
% Taxa de electrificação urbana
2018
Capacidade total instalada (MW)
2030
6,000
2018
2,948.85
Pico de procura (MW)
2025
4247
2018
2194
Electricity consumption by sector (MWh), 2017
Commercial & Public Services
825.73
Residential
4140.28
Industrial
6838.44
Consumo de electricidade per capita (kWh/pessoa)
2016
674.67
SSA average (2016)
365.6
Potencial de recursos solares fotovoltaicos (faixa de saída, kWh/kWp)
4.1 - 4.7
Potencial de recursos eólicos (gama de velocidade do vento, metro por segundo)
2.5 - 9.0
Recurso Potencial (pequena central hidroeléctrica) MW
301.7
Combinação de electricidade por fonte (% da capacidade instalada), 2018
Solar (1.19 %)
Pequenas centrais hidroeléctricas (3.74 %)
Outros (95.07 %)
Preço do gasóleo por litro (EUR)
Perdas técnicas em Transmissão e Distribuição (% da geração)
2018
19.00%
Subsídios à electricidade e aos produtos petrolíferos (% do PIB)
Subsídios para a electricidade, 2017
8.94%
€2,026,461,000.00
Subsídios aos produtos petrolíferos , 2017
1.12%
€255,510,300.00
Metodologia
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