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Full meaning African Union Community of Sahel–Saharan States Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Economic Community of West African States Foreign direct investment Gross domestic product Inclining block tariff(s) International Monetary Fund Independent power producer Kilowatt Kilowatt hour Liquid petroleum gas Megawatt Pay as you go Power purchase agreement Private public partnership Standard and Poors Global Ratings Sub-Saharan Africa Transmission and distribution Time of use West African Economic and Monetary Union United Nations Industrial Development Organization Value added tax World Bank Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy General government debt-to-GDP ratio measures the gross debt of the general government as a percentage of GDP. Debt is calculated as the sum of the following liability categories (as applicable): currency and deposits; debt securities, loans; insurance, pensions and standardised guarantee schemes, and other accounts payable. This percentage is calculated from the number of mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 adults. Occasionally a single user will have more than one mobile subscription and so it is possible for this value to exceed 100%. 190 countries ranked This includes all renewable energy sources (solar, wind, small hydro, geothermal and biomass and waste), and excludes large hydro (above 50 MW) and nuclear. Disclosed share of foreign investment in the clean energy sector (of both local and foreign investment in clean energy, this tells us the amount of foreign investment in clean energy). This includes all renewable energy sources (solar, wind, small hydro, geothermal and biomass and waste), and excludes large hydro (above 50 MW) and nuclear. As per the SACU Tariff Book Additional wind-related components are taxed differently: E.g. aluminium bars for blades are taxed at 5%. As per the SACU Tariff Book As per the SACU Tariff Book As per the VAT Act 10 of 2000 and amendments from 2000, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 and 2015 As per the VAT Act 10 of 2000 and amendments from 2000, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 and 2015 As per the VAT Act 10 of 2000 and amendments from 2000, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 and 2015 The median time (the value for 50 percent of shipments) from port of discharge to arrival at the consignee. Refers to all types of entry ports. Unit is days. Year is 2018, unless specified otherwise. The real economic growth, or real GDP growth rate, measures economic growth as it relates to the GDP from one period to another, adjusted for inflation, and expressed in real terms as opposed to nominal terms. The real economic growth rate considers inflation in its measurement of economic growth, unlike the nominal GDP growth rate, which does not. 167 countries ranked. Scores are averaged across 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018 with the last year weighing most of the score. See "Source" below for more details.

The components analysed in the International LPI include:
• The efficiency of customs and border management clearance;
• The quality of transport infrastructure;
• The ease of arranging shipments;
• The quality of logistics services;
• The ability of tracking and tracing;
• The frequency with which shipments reach consignees within expected delivery times.


Namibia’s economy fell deeper into negative territory, recording a -1.4% change in gross domestic product (GDP) in 2019 after three years of near-zero growth. As a consequence, per capita GDP contracted about 3% over the last two years. With a population of less than 2.5 million people, this translates to about €5234 per person which is among the highest on the continent. In the period between 2015 and 2019, the country’s national debt increased by nearly 10% to 49.2% of GDP and Moody’s downgraded its investment rating twice.

The rate of inflation has steadily fallen from above 6% in 2016 and 2017 to 4.3% in 2018 and 3.7% in 2019. The Namibian dollar (N$) is pegged on a one to one basis with the South African Rand, which means it is prone to many of the same currency value fluctuations. Exchange rates have been relatively volatile in the period since 2015. The local currency recorded several double digit moves across quarters while varying in value between N$11 and N$16 to the US dollar. Similar volatility and price fluctuations are observed against the euro.

Foreign investment into the country has receded substantially since 2015 while clean energy investment increased. From a high in 2015 of almost 7% of GDP, or €740 million, volumes of foreign investment fell to less than half during the following year. In 2018, foreign direct investment (FDI) amounted to just under €170 million accounting for 1.37% of GDP. Clean energy investment grew from around €8 million to €70 million over the same 4-year period. The country’s designated investment authority is the Namibia Investment Centre, a department within the Ministry of Trade and Industry mandated to enable and support FDI.

Namibia offers favourable import incentives on renewable energy technologies, exempting solar panels, wind turbines and batteries from import duties. The country’s standard VAT rate of 15% remains applicable to all these technologies.
Regional affiliation
Official language(s)
National currency
Namibian dollar
Presence of port
Ports of Luderitz and Walvis Bay
Next planned election and cycle length

2024 (5 year cycle)


% urban population of total population
% rural population of total population
Population growth rate
Working age (15-64) share of total population
Working age (15-64)
Rest of population
Urbanisation rate (% urban population growth)


Mobile telecom operators
TN Mobile
All three connectivity indicators
% penetration of mobile cellular subscriptions
% penetration of mobile money
% population with access to internet

Logistics, Import duties and value added tax


Median lead time to import
4 days
Aggregated Logistics Performance Index ranking

Import Duties and Value-Added Tax

Import Duties
Solar panels
Wind turbines
Batteries (for renewable energy storage)
Solar Panels
Wind turbines
Batteries (for renewable energy storage)

Business intelligence

Energy Ranking

Climatescope ranking
Not ranked
Not ranked
Not ranked
WB RISE ranking
Not ranked
Not ranked
Not ranked


Real GDP growth
GDP/capita, real
SSA average
GDP/capita, real
SSA average
GDP/capita, real
Debt to GDP ratio (gross debt)
Inflation rate
Exchange rate
Currency exchange rate vs. EUR and USD
Currency exchange rate vs. EUR
Currency exchange rate vs. USD
Total volume of clean energy investment
% foreign investment in clean energy
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